Na Amy Harris 

Kugera kuri serivisi z’ubuzima muri U.S. biragora, ndese no kugera ku bavukiye ino. Ku bimukira, kugera kuri serivisi z’ubuzima bishobora gusa nk’aho bidashoboka. Abimukira batarabona ubwenegihugu usanga aribo baba bafite ibyago byinshi byo kutabona ubwishingizi bwo kwivuza ngo babone uko bajya kwa muganga. Mu 2020, 20% by’abatuye Maine nta bwishingizi bari bafite. Nyamara amacumi y’ubushakashatsi yerekana ko abadafite ubwishingizi bwo kwivuza buhoraho ari bo usanga bafite ibyago byinshi byo kurwara, bakarwara indwara zidakira, bikaba byabatera no gukenyuka.  

Hifashishjwe ubufasha, urwego rw’ubuzima muri Maine rushobora kwita ku bimukira. Mohammed (yasabye ko amazina ya nyayo atakoreshwa muri iyi nkuru) ni impunzi ikomoka muri Sudan, akaba yaraje muri Maine anyuze mu Misiri mu 2014. Nyuma y’uko ageze ino, yaje kubagwa ijisho inshuro eshanu, anavurwa umwingo mu bitaro Maine Medical Center.

Agira ati “Urwego rw’ubuzima muri Amerika ruhabanye n’urw’aho nkomoka cyane. Muri Afuria, nta bwishingizi bwo kwivuza buhaba. Iyo ufite amafaranga, umuganga azakubaga, akaba yanabikora rwose ejo. Hano muri U.S., ibintu bigenda gake”.

Nyuma yo kubagwa ijisho, ubu arabasha kubona. Ubu akora by’igihe gihoraho muri sosiyete nini, agafasha umugore we n’abana babo bane, akishyura imisoro ndetse afite ubwishingizi bw’ubuzima bw’umuryango we. Nyamara iyo atagirwa inama n’umuturanyi nawe uvuga Icyarabu, uyu akaba yaramufashije kugera kuri serivisi z’ubuzima, Mohammed ntazi neza ko ubu aba abasha kubona.

Urwego rw’ubuzima rwa Maine rutanga zimwe muri serivisi zifasha abimukira kubona, kumva ndetse no gukoresha ubwishingizi, bakabona uko bagera kwa muganga ndetse bakagira amahirwe yo kubona abasemuzi. Abandi bakorana n’imiryango idaharanira inyungu ndetse n’indi miryango iba ihari itanga bene izo serivisi. Kubona ubufasha ni ingenzi cyane ku rwego rumwe no guha akazi abimukira, impunzi ndtse n’abasaba ubuhungiro mu muryango mugari dutuyemo, ndetse no kugirana imikoranire n’amashyirahamwe agaragara mu muryango mugari. Gusa bamwe mu bimukira bakomeza kutagera kuri serivisi z’ubuzima, hakaba ubwo biterwa no kutamenya ko zihari, bavuga ko wenda zitangwa iyo umuntu akeneye ubuvuzi byihutirwa cyangwa se bakaba batarahawe ubufasha bwo kumenyera buhagije buri bakeneye.

Uburyo bwo gufasha abantu bufasha umuntu ku giti cye akabona ubuvuzi nyabwo akeneye, hakaba ubwo buba bugoye cyangwa se buhuza inzego nyinshi. Abafasha bene aba bantu bamenya neza uburwayi umuntu afite, bagategura ndetse bakayobora igikorwa cyo kugurwa cye, ndetse bagashyiraho uburyo bwiza bwo kwivuza kandi ku giciro kiza. Abafasha abantu, akenshi bakora neza iyo batanzwe n’abantu banyuze mu rugendo rw’ubuzima rwenda kumera nk’urw’uwo afasha. Abaganga bizera kenshi ko guha akazi umwimukira bituma arushaho kubona serivisi z’ubuzima, bikagabanya ibyo abantu bibwira bitari byo, ndetse bigatuma serivisi z’ubuzima ahabwa zirushaho kunoga.

Elizabeth Jackson, Umuyobozi mukuru ushinzwe imiyoborera mu kigo Greater Portland Health, ashyira imbere “guha akazi abantu bakomoka hirya no hino ku isi ngo bakoze mu byo kwakira abantu, mu gutanga ubufasha mu by’ubukungu, gukusanya ubushobozi, ndetse no mu myanya y’ibijyanye no gutanga ubufasha mu by’ubuvuzi mu muryango mugari n’indi. Ibi ni iby’agaciro kanini mu gufasha abarwayi hatirengagijwe umuco we mu buryo bukwiye”.

Urwego rugari kurusha izindi rw’ubuzima muri Maine arirwo MaineHealth, narwo rushyira imbere guha akazi abimukira, impunzi ndetse n’abasaba ubuhungiro mu bakozi babo. Mu myaka 20 ishize, gahunda izwi nka Access to Care yafashije abarenga 162,000 muri leta yose, harimo abimukira, kubona ubuvuzi mu gihe batari gushobora kubugeraho. Gusa kubona ubuvuzi biragoye cyane kuburyo MaineHealth ifite amatsinda atandatu atanduanye akora mu byo kurandura inzitizi kuri serivisi z’ubuzima, nko kugera kwa muganga, ikibazo cyo kutagira hao abantu baba n’ururimi. CarePartners ni gahunda yabo y’ubuntu ihabwa abantu batemerewe kubona MaineCare.

Nk’uko umuturanyi wa Mohammed yamufashije kugera kuri serivisi z’ubuzima, abatari abenegihugu bamenya amakuru ajyanye n’iby’ubuzima babibwiwe na bagenzi babo. Aha niho imiryango yita kubantu nka Maine Access Immigrant Network,  Catholic Charities, imiryango yita ku mpunzi n’abimukira yibumbiye mu ihuriro riharanira uburenganzira bw’abimukira batuye Maine iherereye hirya no hino muri iyi Leta, igira uruhare runini cyane mu gufungurira imiryango abantu ibageza kuri serivisi z’ubuzima. Isano idafite aho yanditse yagiye ishinga imizi binyuze muri aya matsinda ishobora gufasha abantu kubona ubuvuzi buhendutse bakeneye. Gukorana n’imiryango igaragara mu muryango mugari ifasha mu gukuraho umuhora munini watumaga abantu batagera ku buvuzi, kabone n’ubwo bwaba ari ubw’ibanze. Kubaka icyizere n’imikoranire, gahunda ya Access to Caire ya MaineHealth (iherereye hirya gato ya Maine Accesss Immigrant Network, (MAIN)) , akenshi ifasha abantu kuva ku biryo byabo baza kuri MAIN.    

Ikigo Greater Portland Health kandi, akenshi gikoresha ubu buryo bwo gufasha abantu kuza n’amaguru, nk’uburyo bwo gutinyura abimukira baba bataratinyuka guhura n’abaganga, nyuma yo kwiyandikisha. Hatabaye guhura n’abandi ndetse no kubaka ubucuti n’ikizere, abatari abenegihugu n’abandi baba bakeneye cyane serivis z’ubuzima bashobora kutazigera bazigeraho. Ibi byumvikana cyane igihe bakeneye kuvurwa indwara akenshi zifatwa nka kirazira nk’indwara zibasira ubuzima bwo mumutwe cyangwa se izifata imyanya myibarukiro. Ikigo Greater Portland Health iteka gikorana na In Her Presence, umuryango wita ku bimukira cyane cyane ab’igitsina-gore, kugirango ufashe benshi kugera kuri serivisi z’ubuzima ndetse no kubona abakozi bakora mu mashami 12 ya GPH muri Portland no muri South Portland.

Ibyo ukwiye kumenya ku bijyanye no kugera kuri serivisi z’ubuzima no kubona ubwishingizi muri Maine.

  1. Ubwenegihugu bwawe ntabwo buzahungabanywa no kwiyandikisha ngo uhabwe ubwishingizi bwo kwivuza, ubone ubuvuzi bw’ubuntu cyangwa se igihe wananiwe kwishyura fagitire zo kwa muganga.
  1. Ubwishingizi bufasha mu kwishyura gahunda z’abaganga, imiti, ubuvuzi bw’ingoboka nko kujya kwa muganga bitunguranye.
  1. Ibitaro muri Maine byemererwa n’amategeko gutanga ubuvuzi bwihuse ndetse na zimwe muri zerivisi zidahenze , hatitawe ku bwenegihugu bw’umuntu cyangwa se hatarebwe ko azabasha kwishyura.
  1. Umukoresha ashobora gutanga ubwishingizi bwo kwivuza. Iyo atariko bimeze, ushobora kuba wemerewe kubona ubwishingizi bwa MaineCare binyuze muri Maine Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). (855) 797-4357
  1. Impunzi ndetse n’abasaba ubwishingizi bemerewe ubufasha bwose butangwa na MaineCare.
  1. Abagore batwite ndetse n’abafite munsi y’imyaka 21, iyo bahari mu buryo bwemewe n’amategeko bashobora kubona ubufasha bwose bwa MaineCare. Tariki 1/07/2022 abadafite ubwenegihugu bakiri abana n’abatwite bazaba bemerewe gusaba MaineCare cyangwa ubwishingizi bw’abana buzwi nka (CHIP). Imyaka itanu yasabwaga ntabwo izaba igikenewe.
  1. Umuryango Maine Equal Justice, utanga amakuru arebana n’ubufasha buhabwa abaturage kutuye Maine bose. Wasura maineequaljustice.org/help-is-available/help-for-immigrants/.
  1. Abafashamyumvire n’abafasha mu by’ubuzima bafasha mu gufata gahunda z’ubuntu cyangwa se zidahenze n’abaganga ndetse no gufata imiti hamwe no mu buryo bwo kugera kwa muganga.
    1. Umuryango Maine Consumers for Affordable Healthcare utanga inama n’ubufasha ku bantu bakeneye ubwishingizi mu kwivuza, cyangwa se bakeneye ubuvuzi. (800) 965-7476

Kuri ubu, 6 muri 87 bagize MaineHealth Access ni abimukira. Nk’uko bitangazwa na Carol Zechman, umuyobozi mukuru wa Access to Care. Agira ati “icyo twari tugamije cyane ni ukugerageza kwagurira imbibi zacu muri Cumberland ngo duhe ikaze abirabura, abakiri bashya muri Maine ndetse n’abantu bakomoka hirya no hino bazana imyumvire mishya, ukwihangana, kwicisha bugufi ndetse no guhiganwa.” Yemera ko urwego rw’ubuzima muri U.S rutoroshye. “ntabwo ushobora kumenya neza ibyinjira n’ibisohoka mu rwego rw’ubuvuzi utarubamo ngo umenye iby’ubwishingizi ku buryo buhoraho. Ntabwo ari ibintu washakisha kuri google gusa.”  

Amata, umubyeyi w’abana batatu ufite imyaka 39, yabonye impamyabushobozi ye mu byo gufasha abantu (Social work) mu Rwanda mbere yo kuza muri Maine mu 2014. Yahawe akazi na Access to Care mu 2020, mu gihe icyorezo cya COVID 19 cyatangiraga, ahita yihutira gukoresha ubumenyi bwe mu gutahura “ibikenewe cyane n’abashya muri Maine” mu ndimi eshanu avuga ari zo Icyongereza, Igifaransa, i Kinyarwanda, Lingala na Swahili.

Aline Uwanyiligira, kuri ubu ukora nk’umuhuzabikorwa mu by’ubuvuzi mu ikipe ya MaineHealth, yibuka uburyo yagize ubwoba ubwo yamenyaga ko azajya akenera kubonana na muganga nyuma yo kugera muri Maine, kuko yari atwite inda y’amezi atandatu. Kubona umuntu umufasha mu by’ubuganga ntabwo byamufashije gusa kubona ubwishingizi mu kwivuza, ahubwo byanamufashije kubonamo akazi. Nyuma y’imyaka irindwi, Uwanyiligira arashima MaineHealth n’umujyanama we kuko bamuhaye akazi, bakamushyigikira bakanamuzamuri mu mwuga we wo gufasha abantu.

Abatari abenegihugu bashobora kutagira amahirwe ahagije yo kubona ubuvuzi, kubera gutinya ko byazagira ingaruka mu gusaba ubwenegihugu, bakanatinya ko kugerageza kubona serivisi z’ubuvuzi bishobora gutuma basubizwa mu bihugu baturutsemo ycangwa kwimwa ibyangombwa byo gutura ku buryo buhoraho. Benshi mu banyeshuri bagiye bagaragaza ugutinya haba ubuvuzi cyangwa se ubwishingizi. Binti na Uwanyiligira bemeza koi bi byari bikomeye cyane nyuma y’uko ubuyobozi bw’uwahoze ari perezida Donald Trump yahinduraga politiki y’abimukira. Chantal Ruzindana, uwahuguriwe gufasha abantu mu Rwanda, igihugu cye akomokamo, ahora yizeza abatari abenegihugu ko ibyo bashobora kuba barumvise ku byago byakomoka ku gushaka kwivuza muri U.S. atari ukuri.

Bamwe batinya ko kwiyandikisha ngo bahabwe ubuvuzi ku buntu bishobora kuzagira ingaruka ku gushaka ubwishingizi bw’abandi bagize umuryango. Umuryango Kaiser Family watangaje ko mu 2020, umwe mu bana bane muri U.S afite umubyeyi w’umwimukira, gusa benshi muri abo bana ni abenegihugu, bafite uburenganzira butandukanye n’ababyeyi babo. Ibi rero bishobora kugorana kubyumva ndetse no kubibaho.  

Muri Maine, aho benshi mubakihagera baba by’igihe gito muri za hoteli, cyangwa se rimwe na rimwe bikaba ngombwa ko bajya kwa muganga bavuye muri hoteli, bikomezwa cyane no kutagira uburyo bwo kugera iyo bajya. Ishyirahamwe ry’abashya muri Maine (MANA), ritanga uburyo bwo kugenda ku buntu kandi mu ndimi zitandukanye, bakajyana abantu muri gahunda zo kwa muganga zihiturwa cyane mu majyepfo ya Maine. MaineHealth Access to Care iri gushakisha imodoka zo kuvana abantu kuri hoteli zibajyana kubonana na muganga. Naho Greater Portland Health ifite abaganga bakorera rimwe na rimwe kuri za hoteli ndetse no kubigo nderabuzima biherereye ku mashuri muri South Portland.

Kugirango abatuye Maine barusheho kugira ubuzima buzira umuze, abantu bose bakeneye gufashwa ngo babone ubwishingizi bwo kwa muganga budahenze ndetse n’ubuvuzi. Byinshi mu bigo bivura bitanga ubufasha ku bimukira biherereye mu bice bibarizwamo abimukira benshi. MaineHealth Access to Care ifite ibiro 17 mu turere 9, ndetse ikomeje kwagurira imbibe zayo no kongerera abakozi muri York ndetse no mu bice bikora ku nkombe kugirango babashe kuha serivisi abazikeneye bakomeje kwiyongera, nk’uko bivugwa na Carol Zechman. Lewiston ifite imiryango yita ku buzima cyane cyane bw’abimukira, nka New Mainers Public Hleaht Initiative, na Gateway Community Services Maine ifite ibiro muri Lewiston ndetse na Geater Portland.

Gukoresha abavukiye hanze y’igihugu nka Aline Uwanyiligira, Amata Binti na Chantal Ruzindana bifasha mu kuziba icyuho mu kugera kuri serivisi z’buzima ku batuye Maine bose. Babayeho abimukira, hamwe n’ubumenyi bwabo ndetse n’amahugurwa ku bijyanye n’uko urwego rw’ubuvuzi muri Maine rukora, bibagira indashyikirwa mu kugera ku buzima bwiza kuri bose.