Yanditswe na Amy Harris 

Abarenga miliyoni 4 muri Amerika, kuri ubu babana na hepatite A, hepatite B cyangwa hepatite C, zose zikaba ari indwara zibasira umwijima zitewe na virusi zitandukanye. Ku isi, hepatite D na hepatite E nazo zihangayikishije abantu, gusa iziri rusange muri virusi za hepatite muri Maine n’ahandi muri U.S. ni A,B, na C.

Amevi Assoutovi, umujyanama mu by’ubuzima mu rwego rushinzwe ubuzima muri Portland ari rwo Portland Public Health Division, agaragaza isakara ry’amakuru y’ibihuha n’ayumvikanye nabi ku birebana na za hepatite, harimo n’arebana n’itandukaniro muri za virusi zitandukanye. Hepatite zishobora guhererekanywa umuntu ku wundi, kandi kuba abantu badafite ubumenyi no kumva ubwoko bwa Hepatite, uko zihererekanywa ndetse n’uko zirindwa byose bishyira abatuye Maine bose mukaga.

Iyo zitavuwe, bumwe mu bwoko bwa Hepatite bushobora gutera kanseri y’umwijima cyangwa izindi ndwara zikomeye z’umwijima. Bimwe mu bimenyetso twavuga nk’umuriro, umunaniro, ndetse na jondise (umuhondo mu maso, kugira ibara ridasobanutse mu musarane n’inkari), gusa kuko abantu bamwe batajya bagaragaza ibimenyetso, kumva umeze neza ntibivuze ko umuntu afite ubuzima buzira umuze. Assoutovi agira abantu inama zo kwihugura ku bukana bwa buri virusi, ndetse no gusaba amakuru ku buvuzi bushoboka ndetse no gufata inkingo nk’uko babigirwamo inama ngo birinde ubu burwayi.

Assoutovi yakusanyije amakuru ku bamugana, ku birebana no kwikingiza, ibyihutirwa, ndetse na gahunda yo kohereza umuntu ku mavuriro yabihuguriwe, (SPUR) ikigo nderabuzima giherereye kuri 39 Forest Avenue, Portland, maze asanga bafite amakuru make hafi ya ntayo ku kwirinda izi virusi nko gukoresha inkingo, gutizanya inshinge, ndetse no kwisuzumisha hepatite. Avuga ko ahangayikishwa n’uko kutagira amakuru bibera imbogamizi abamugana zo kwirinda kwandura cyangwa kubona ubuvuzi hakiri kare.

Mu gihugu hose, imibare y’abandura hepatite C yazamutseho 7% hagati y’umwaka wa 2020 na 2021. Chloe Manchester, ushinzwe indwara z’ibyorezo mu kigo gishinzwe gukumira ibiza cya Maine, avugako imibare ya hepatite B na C yagabanutseho gato muri Maine muri icyo gihe, gusa agakeka ko abagaragajwe ari bo bake mu gihe cya COVID – 19 biturutse ku igabanuka ry’ibikorwa byo gusuzuma. Manchester, avuga ko hepatite C ikomeje “kuba ikibazo gihangayikishije muri Maine ndetse n’ahandi muri U.S.,” kandi agatinya ko abatarisuzumishije hepatite C bashobora kuzayanduza abana bababyara. Agira ati “ntawahakana ko imibare y’abana bandura hepatite C bavuka itabarwa yose”

Kwigisha ibijyanye no kwisuzumisha, uburyo bwo kwivuza buhari, ndetse n’inkingo bikwiye gukwirakwizwa hose muri leta, nk’uko bishimangirwa na Manchester. “Dufite ibikoresho byose bikenewe kugirango tubashe guhashya iki kibazo gihangayikishije umuryango mugari,” harimo ubuvuzi bwo kurwego rwo hejuru buzwiho kuvura cyane kandi neza, uburyo bwakorewe amasuzuma bikemezwa ko butangiza, ndetse n’ibikorwa by’isuzuma ku buryo buhoraho.”

Itorero riharanira ikoreshwa ry’inshinge ritekanye, rifite intego yo “kugabanya ibyago bishamikiye ku gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge ku buryo buhoraho ndetse no kuzamura no gushyigikira abugarijwe n’ubukene, kutagera ku buvuzi ndetse no kutagira aho umuntu atura.” Ni umwe mu miryango ihari ugamije kwigisha abantu ndetse no kubabonera ubuvuzi burebana na hepatite. Bafite ibikorwa bitandukanye muri uyu mwaka wa 2024. Bafite abasemuzi, imfashanyigisho zisemuye, ndetse n’ibikorwa byo gusuzuma hepatite ndetse n’inkingo zayo byose k’ubuntu.

Cyakora umuyobozi mukuru Zoe Brokos avuga ko ubukangurambaga butoroshye. Agira ati “umurimo dukora ukorerwa ivangura ku rwego rwo hejuru henshi mu muryango,” bakorana kandi n’imiryango nka Generational Noor, Maine People, hamwe na Maine Inside Out ku bijyanye no gushyira imbaraga mu bukangurambaga. Umurimo uvuze kinini cyane mu bijyanye no kugabanya ibyago bishamikiye kuri hepatite B na C, no gutanga amahirwe ku bantu yo kureka guhererekanya inshinge zakoreshejwe bagakoresha izikiri nshya. Uretse kandi kongera uburyo bwo kugera ku nshinge nshyashya, avavugizi mu by’ubuzima bizera ko gusuzuma bose bikwiye kuba kimwe mu bikorwa bihoraho bikorerwa mu mavuriro, kuko isuzuma ryafasha abarwaye ari nako rigabanya ubwandu.

Mu rwego rwo gufasha abantu, imiryango myinshi muri Maine yaje kubona ko ubuvuzi bushingiye ku mico itandukanye nabwo bukwiye kuboneka. Nk’uko bivugwa na Manchester, ikigo Greater Portland Health hamwe na Maine Medical Center’s Virology Treatment Center ni ingero z’imiryango ikorana n’abaturage kugirango imenye ko abasanzwemo iyi ndwara “boherezwa mu buryo bwiza ahantu bashobora kubona ubuvuzi bwiza, bushingiye ku mico y’abantu kandi buzira ihezwa iryo ari ryo ryose.”

Ikwirakwira rya hepatite A rishobora kwirindwa abantu bakaraba intoki iteka, bakagira isuku nyinshi, ari nako boza bakanateka neza ibiribwa. Hepatite A irandura cyane kurusha hepatite B cyangwa C. Yandura umuntu akoze aho umusarane w’uyirwaye wakoze maze akikora mu kanwa cyangwa ku byo arya adakarabye, ashobora kandi kuyandura binyuze ku kurya ibyo kurya cyangwa amazi yanduye.

Hepatite B yandura binyuze mu matembabuzi yo mu mubiri nk’amaraso, intanga, binyuze mu nshinge zidasukuwe bikwiye, ndetse binanyuze ku mubyeyi akaba yayanduza umwana abyara igihe cyo kubyara. Abantu benshi bafite hepatite B ntabwo bagira ibimenyetso igihe bacyandura, bigatuma bitaborohera kwisuzumisha cyangwa kwivuza.

Abantu benshi bandura hepatite C binyuze mu gutizanya inshinge cyangwa ibindi bikoresho igihe bari gutegura no kwitera ibiyobyabwenge, nk’uko bitangazwa n’ikigo gishinzwe gukumira no guhashya ibiza CDC. Izamuka mu gukoresha ikiyobyabwenge cya opiod ndetse n’izamuka ry’imibare y’abatizanya inshinge bishobora kubarwaho igice cy’uruhare mu gukomeza gukwirakwiza hepatite C.

Muri izi eshatu, hepatite C niyo akenshi yibasira abantu bucece, abantu bakaba babaho batabona n’ikimenyetso na kimwe, kugeza igihe indwara yahindutse indwara y’umwijima ikomeye.

Abantu benshi iyo banduye hepatite A barwara by’igihe gito, ubundi bakumva barakize rwose, abenshi bakanabaho badafite ibisigisigi by’iyi ndwara ku mwijima wabo.

Hepatite B na C zo zihinduka indwara ikomeye ishobora kumara amezi atandatu, hamwe n’indwara ya twibanire ishobora kumara ubuzima bwose. Nta muti wa hepatite B ubaho, gusa igihe ikurikiranwe neza, hepatite B ntabwo ihinduka uburwayi bukomeye bushobora no kwangiza cyane umwijima (bizwi nka cirrhosis) cyangwa se kanseri y’umwijima.

Ubuvuzi buteye imbere bugezweho bwa hepatite C bushobora kuvura benshi mu bafite iyi ndwara kandi mu gihe gito. Ubuvuzi akenshi bumara ibyumweru biri hagati y’umunani na 12 umuntu afata ibinini, aho abagera kuri 90% by’abarwayi bakira, bakaba bagira ingaruka nke nk’uko bitangazwa na CDC ya U.S.

Inkingo

Hari inkingo zo gukumira hepatite A na hepatite B. abantu babana na hepatite B cyangwa C bagirwa inama yo gufata urukingo rwa hepatite A.