Yanditswe na Amy Harris 

Indwara z’umutima ziza ku isonga mu bitera imfu nyinshi z’abagore n’abagabo muri Amerika. Muri Maine, indwara z’umutima zihitana umwe mu bantu batanu bapfa, naho ku rwego rw’igihugu umwe muri batatu bapfa aba azize indwara zikomoka ku mutima. Uburyo abantu babaho, bagenda ndetse n’uko barya bigira uruhare runini mu kumenya niba bari kugenda barwara indwara zishamikiye ku mutima. Ikibabaje, kutabasha kwivuza bitewe n’ubushobozi buke, kuva umuntu atarabona ibyangombwa byo gutura, kutamenya ururimi neza no kutabona abasemuzi bahagije kwa muganga, hakiyongeraho kutagira aho gutura no kutabona ibyo kurya bihagije byose bizamura ibyago byo kurwara indwara zibasira umutima.

Indwara z’umutima ni iki?

Indwara z’umutima zikubiyemo uruhuri rw’indwara ziterwa no kwiyubaka kw’utubuye mu mijyana n’imigarura y’amaraso. Kwikora k’utwo tubuye tugumamo, bishobora gutera indwara zidakira kw’iz’imitsi ijyana amaraso, kubabara mugatuza, guhagarara k’umutima cyangwa iturika ry’udutsi rwo mu bwoko rizwi nka (stroke). Indwara izwi cyane mu ndwara z’umutima muri Amerika ni Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), ituma amaraso agana mumutima agenda gake cyane. Kugenda gake kw’amaraso agana mumutima gushobora gutera umutima guhagarara.  

Hari ibigaragaza ko abatuye mu  muryango mugari runaka bafite ubuzima bwiza hatitawe ku kuba umuntu ari kugenda arwara indwara z’umutima cyangwa ari muzima. Ibigaragaza uko umuntu abayeho ni ibiri cyangwa ibikorerwa aho ari byagira icyo byahindura ku magara, ubwiza bw’ubuzima, ndetse n’ibyago byo kurwara. Ubushakashatsi ku byatera ibyago byo kurwara indwara z’umutima bwakozwe na Maine Health Center bwerekanye ko muri leta y’umujyi nka Maine, indwara z’umutima zitewa ahanini n’ibyo kurya ndetse no kudakora imyitozo ngorora mubiri.

Umuganga uvura indwara z’umutima muri Maine Medical Center witwa Dr. Maxwell Afari yibonera n’amaso uburyo uko abantu babayeho bituma batabasha kugera mu ivuriro rye. Nk’umuntu wivugira ko akunda cyane ruhago akaba kandi akomoka muri Ghana, yahisemo kwiga ibyo kuvura indwara z’umutima ubwo yari akiri kwiga mu ishuri ry’ubuvuzi muri Brazil, nyuma y’urupfu rw’umukinnyi w’umupira w’amaguru w’umunya Cameroun Marc – Vivien Foe. Ubu noneho ari mu buzima butandukanye cyane n’umupira w’amaguru, abona cyane uburyo imibereho ituma gukurikiza inama ze igihe bivuza cyangwa birinda indwara z’umutima bikomerera abantu.

 “hari ubushakashatsi bwinshi bwagiye bwerekana ko icyo umuntu arya ari cyo aba cyo. Gusa iyo ufite amafaranga make urwana no kubona icyo urya, inzu cyangwa udatuje kubera ibyangombwa, ntabwo ubasha gukora amahitamo nakakwifurije nk’umuganga w’indwara z’umutima.”

Dr Maxwell Afari agira ati

Avuga ko kwirinda indwara z’umutima ushyiraho ibisabwa ngo abantu babe babayeho ubuzima bunoze bitoroshye. Indwara z’umutima ni twibanire, kandi ziza buhoro buhoro mu gihe kirekire cyane, ari ko zitanga utumenyetso duto kandi duke. Ibi rero bituma kuzirinda no kuzivura bitorohera abaganga b’imitima nka Afari. Rimwe na rimwe, guhagarara k’umutima kugaragara nk’ikimenyetso cya mbere cy’indwara y’umutima. Igihe bishoboka, kubaho ubuzima buzira umuze ari nako urebera hafi ibyabuhungabanya bishobora gufasha mu kwirinda indwara z’umutima hakiri kare.

  1. Dore uko wakwirinda indwara z’umutima: 1. Rya indyo yifitemo amavuta n’amasukari make, ahubwo wongere imboga n’imbuto mu mafunguro yawe. 2. Gabanya umwanya umara wicaye ahubwo wongere uwo umara ugendagenda (fata icyemezo cyo gukora imyitozo ngororamubiri byibura iminota 30 ku munsi, iminsi itanu mu cyumweru). 3. Bonana na muganga byibura rimwe mu mwaka, akurebere uko isukari ufite mumaraso ingana ndetse na Cholesterol. 4. Hagarika kunywa itabi, 5. Sinzira neza kandi igihe gihagije (Amasaha ari hagati y’arindwi n’icyenda niyo aba akenewe ku muntu mukuru).

Urwego rushinzwe ubuzima ndetse n’imibereho myiza y’abaturage muri Amerika, mu ishami ryita kuri ba nyamuke, rivuga ko hari impamvu nyinshi nko kutamenya ururimi neza ndetse no kuba hari imico itandukanye, kutagira ububasha bwo kubona ubuvuzi n’ubujyanama mu kwirinda, ndetse no kutagira ubwishingizi bwo kwivuza zituma ibyago byo kurwara indwara z’umutima zibasiye benshi mu bakomoka muri Amerika y’Amajyepfo ndetse n’abirabura.

Inkuru yasohotse mu kinyamakuru cy’umuryango w’Abanyamerika wita ku mutima mu 2020, ivuga ko Abanyamerika bavukiye muri Afurika bagira ibyago byinshi byo kurwara indwara z’umutima kurusha bagenzi babo bavukiye muri Amerika. Ikindi kandi, abanyamerika bavukiye muri Afurika nibo usanga ahanini badafite ubwishingizi bwo kwivuza, kandi udafite ikarita yo kwivurizaho ntubasha kugira aho werekeza iyo warwaye. Abimukira akenshi ntibabasha kubona uko bisuzumisha ngo bamenye ko nta muvuduko munini w’amaraso barwaye, diyabete ndetse n’izindi ndwara z’umutima ugasanga babibonye igihe cyararenze. Abashakashatsi muri ubu bushakashatsi basoza bavuga ko igihe cyose amakuru ahari azaba ari ayo mu bantu bake bari ukwabo, ntabe ari amakuru ahagarariye “abirabura bose batuye Amerika”, ntibishoboka ko umuntu yabona ifoto rusange y’uko indwara z’umutima mu bantu runaka.

Amoko abiri manini muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika ni abo bita “Hispanic cyangwa aba Latino”, hakaba kandi abadakomoka ku banyaburiyi batavuga icyespanyoli. Aba bambere bakomoka ku bavuga icyespanyoli mu bihugu bivuga uru rurimi. Gusa ushobora kubasanga mu bazungu, abirabura, abanyamerika ba kavukire ndetse no mubakomoka muri Asia. Mbere ya COVID – 19, indwara z’umutima zazaga ku isonga mu zihitana abakomoka ku bavuga icyespanyoli muri Amerika. Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko aba bakomoka ku bavuga icyespanyoli bifitemo umubare munini w’abibasiwe n’umubyibuho ukabije, diyabete ndetse n’ibindi byinshi bitera indwara z’imitsi n’umutima. Cyakora, uko ibiri ku isonga mu bitera indwara zibasira umutima bigenda bitandukana hagati y’imiryango migari yo muri ba nyamuke ndetse n’abimukira muri Amerika. Hejuru yo gushyira abantu mu byiciro hagendewe ku moko ndetse n’amabara y’impu bifasha mu gukusanya amakuru ntibigaragara neza. Ikigo cya Maine gishinzwe gukumira ibyorezo (Maine CDC) ntabwo gikusanya amakuru y’abimukira ukwabo bahatuye, ibintu bikaba ari na ko bimeze no mu zindi leta. Babikoresha bakusanya amakuru ku banyamerika ba kavukire cyangwa abakomoka muri Alaska, abakomoka muri Asiya, abirabura cyangwa abanyamerika bakomoka muri Afurika, abakomoka mu birwa bya Hawaii, abazungu, abakomoka ku bavuga icyespanyoli cyangwa abadakomoka ku bavuga icyespanyoli (Non-Hispanic).

Benjamin Hummel, umuyobozi w’ishami rishinzwe kwita ku buzima rusange mu kigo gishinzwe guhashya Ibiza cya Maine ari cyo Maine ari cyo Maine CDC, hamwe na Ian Yaffe uyobora ishami rigamije gutanga ubuvuzi ku buryo bungana kuri bose muri Maine CDC, bemera ko uku kutagira amakuru n’imibare bibangamira cyane igikorwa cyo gusobanura ibyago bihari by’indwara z’umutima, ndetse n’uburyo zakwirindwa mu bimukira ndetse n’impunzi.

Bimwe mu bimenyetso by’indwara z’umutima twavugamo nk’umuvuduko w’amaraso, cholesterol iri hejuru, kunywa itabi, kurya nabi, diyabete, ibiro by’umurengera ndetse n’umubyibuho ukabije, kunywa inzoga nyinshi, gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge, kugira siteresi nyinshi ndetse no kuba mu muryango harimo abantu bagiye barware izi ndwara cyangwa se indwara yo guturika k’udutsi two mu bwonko.

“byonyine kuba nta mibare ifatika ihari yo kwerekana ko hari itandukaniro mu ndwara z’umutima bitavuze ko ntarihari. Ntabwo dukenye kurindira ko haboneka imibare ngo tugerageza kugira icyo dukora ku bigaragara byatera indwara z’umutima mu miryango migari runaka”

Ian yaffe, diregiteri muri ishami rishinzwe gutanga ubuvuzi ku buryo bungana muri CDC ya Maine, avuga ko

Abaganga bose, abakorera leta mu rwego rw’ubuzima, ndetse n’abahagarariye imiryango igamije gukorera abaturage babajijwe muri iyi nkuru bagaragaje impungenge zo kutabasha kugera ku buvuzi mu muryango w’abirabura, kutagira uburyo buhagije bwo kubafasha mu rurimi n’ibindi, hakaba kandi kutabona amazu n’ibyo kurya mu buryo bukwiye. Iteka LD 718 ritaganyijwe kwigwaho n’inteko ishinga amategeko ya Maine vuba aha, rishobora kuzabyutsa MaineCare ikongera igahabwa abasaba ubuhungiro, igihe yaba itowe. Iki cyakemura kimwe muri ibi bibazo bitera indwara z’umutima. (Kuri ubu abakuze mu bashaka ubuhungiro ntabwo babasha kubonana na muganga uko bikwiye muri Maine).

Lori Kaley, ni umuyobozi w’umushinga Maine SNAP-Ed, muri kaminuza ya New England. SNAP –Ed, utanga inyigisho mu gutegura indyo yuzuye mu bice bitandukanye nko kumashuri, ahatangirwa ibyo kurya, mu mashuri y’inshuke ya leta ndetse n’ahandi harererwa inshuke, mu maguriro y’ibyo kurya, ndetse no kubiro bya DHHS ku bahabwa ubufasha mu byo kurya. Nk’uko Kaley abisobanura, kugira aho umuntu atura kuburyo burambye birihutirwa cyane. “Kurya indyo yifitemo imyunyu mike cyangwa se irimo amavuta make bisa nk’ibidashoboka mu gihe utujwe by’igihe gito muri hoteli uburyo bwonyine bwo guteka ufite ari ugutekera mu cyuma gishyushya ibyo kurya”.