Yanditswe na Amy Harris

Akato kabangamira ibiganiro ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge

Impuguke zemera ko abimukira baza muri Amerika bakuze bagize umubare muto w’abakoresha ibiyobyabwenge ugereranyije na bagenzi babo bavukiye ino. Cyakora, uko abimukira batura muri Amerika, ni nako bagenda bakira imico ya kinyamerika, akaba ari nako bagenda batangira kunywa inzoga no gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge. Bityo rero, abana bakomoka ku bimukira ni bo baba bafite ibyago byinshi byo kubatwa n’ibiyobyabwenge. Ntabwo ari ababyeyi babo.

Sintekereza ko (ibiyobyabwenge) bizacika igihe cyose tutarahagarika kubihishira. Ibi kandi ni ko bimeze mu muryango mugari w’abimukira.

—Abdul Ali, umwarimu, ukora ubuvugizi akaba n’umusizi agira ati

Abo bakoresha ibiyobyabwenge, baba bafite kandi ibyago byinshi byo kubihishira bityo ntibabashe gusaba ubufasha bitewe n’akato no kwiheza bijyana no gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge mu muryango w’abimukira. Abamaze kubatwa nabyo, ni nk’aho rwose batajya begera impuguke mu kuvura bene aba bantu ngo babe babaha ubufasha bakeneye.

Krista Hall, Umuyobozi muri Gateway Community Center, urwego ruzobereye mu gutanga ubufasha bukenerwa n’abimukira, yagize ati “ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge ni ikizira k’uburyo ari nk’aho rwose tutajya twumva umuntu uri kurwana no kubireka. Imibare yerekana ko hari abantu bari guhangana n’ingaruka zo kubikoresha, cyakora, ni gake cyane bijya ahagaragara… mu bihe byashize, twabajijwe n’abantu batandukanye niba hari ubufasha bugendanye n’imico y’abimukira twaba dufite mu byo kuvura abo bantu, bigasa nk’aho nta kintu rwose dufite cyateganyirijwe by’umwihariko abimukira.”

Kureberwa mu ndorerwamo y’ibiyobyabwenge bitera ipfunwe

Urutonde rw’indwara muri Amerika rushyira ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge mu ndwara zigomba kwitabwaho n’abaganga ndetse n’impuguke mu bijyanye n’imikorere y’ubwonko. Cyakora, benshi mu bimukira, nk’abaturuka ku mugabane w’Afurika babona kubatwa n’ibiyobyabwenge nk’icyasha mu bijyanye n’imyitwarire ya muntu kurusha uko babibona nk’indwara. Ubirebeye muri iyi ndorerwamo, avuga ko gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge ari amahitamo ya muntu, bityo abantu babikoresha ari abanyantege nke, batari inyangamugayo, ndetse baba bakoze icyaha kurusha uko bafatwa nk’abarwayi.

Uko waganiriza abana ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge

 

  • • Abana bamenya ibiyobyabwenge, inzoga n’ibindi nkabyo bakiri bato, ni yo mpamvu ukwiye gutangira kubibaganirizaho bakiri bato.
  • • Baza abana bawe icyo baba barumvise ku biyobyabwenge n’inzoga, ndetse n’aho baba barabyumvise. Gerageza kumenya amakuru ahagije kugirango ubashe kumuha amakuru akeneye.
  • • Wihutiraho, kandi irinde kuganzwa n’amarangamutima. Banza wumve, mbere yo kugira ikindi cyose ukora.
  • • Shyiraho imirongo ntarengwa kandi ube uzi icyo wifuza kugeraho. Menyesha abana bawe ko uri gukora ibyo kubera ko ubitayeho kandi ubakunda.
  • • Kuganira utuganiro duto duto kenshi bitanga umusaruro munini kurusha ikiganiro kimwe kinini.

Odette graduated from Portland Adult Education in 2017. She took a CNA course while studying for her high school equivalency HiSET exam. “It was a great experience for me. It changed everything. This picture is a symbol of us making great things together. My daughter took a babysitting class to be able to babysit my son while I was working and going to school. Before that, friends from MidCoast New Mainers Group babysit the children for me. We have each other and we have great friends and community. It makes a huge difference,” she said.

Odette Zouri, wiga ibijyanye n’ubuforomo ukomoka muri Burkina Faso, ni nyina w’umwana w’umukobwa w’imyaka 16 ndetse n’umuhungu w’imyaka 11. Avuga ku ipfunwe rijyana no kubatwa n’ibiyobyabwenge. “Mu muryango w’abimukira twifitemo akato kenshi cyane. Duhana akato hagati yacu kubera icyo kibazo. Ntabwo dufata ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge nk’indwara … abantu babibona nk’amahitamo. Nk’aho wahisemo kubatwa nabyo”.

Umujyanama mu by’ubuzima ku kigo cyita ku buzima cya Greater Portland witwa Molly Fox, yibuka ubwo yari afite umurwayi ukomoka muri Sudan wakoreshaga inzoga n’ikitwa Opioid kugirango abashe kubana n’indwara yo mumutwe ituruka ku ihungabana (PTSD). Uyu murwayi yari afite ikimwaro kinshi akura ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge, ndetse ntiyabashaga kubona ihuriro ry’ibiyobyabwenge yakoreshaga ndetse n’imbaraga yashyiraga mu kubana n’iyo ndwara yo mumutwe yakuye mu bibazo yahuye nabyo bikamuhungabanya (PTSD), indwara ikomeye yo mumutwe yari akwiye kuba avurwa ndetse akitabwaho ngo ayikire. Yumvaga ariwe wagize uruhare mu kuba akoresha ibiyobyabwenge. Fox avuga ko bamwe batinya gufata imiti ahubwo bakiyambaza inzoga kugirango biyibagize indwara zibabaza umubiri ndetse no kubura ibitotsi.

Inzoga ziboneka byoroshye zitwikira ihungabana riterwa no kwisanga mu mico y’ahandi

Inzoga ni kimwe mu biyobyabwenge gikoreshwa by’umurengera mu muryango w’abimukira, kandi gikoreshwa n’urubyiruko ndetse n’abakuze bashaka kwiyibagiza ihungabana nk’uko bisobanurwa n’umwarimu, ukora ubuvugizi akaba n’umusizi Abdul Ali. Ibarura ryo mu 2019 ku buzima muri rusange bw’urubyiruko muri Maine, bwerekanye ko abarenga 23% by’abiga mu mashuri yisumbuye banyoye ku nzoga byibura rimwe mu minsi 30. Kuri Ali, gutangira kunywa inzoga umuntu ari muto bituma umwana ahura n’ibyago byinshi byo gufungwa imyaka ibiri mu igororero ry’urubyiruko rya Longo Creek Youth Development Facility.

Kwemera ikoreshwa ry’urumogi muri Maine birimo urujijo

Urumogi ni ikindi kiyobyabwenge kiboneka kandi cyemerewe gukoreshwa muri Maine. N’ubwo urumogi rwemewe muri iyi leta, kurukoresha biracyari icyaha gihanwa n’amategeko, ndetse uramutse afashwe arukoresha bishobora kumuviramo we n’umuryango we kwimwa ubwenegihugu. Byibura umwe muri bane mu banyeshuri biga mu mashuri yisumbuye muri Maine yavuze ko yakoresheje urumogi mu minsi 30 ishize nk’uko bigaragara mu ibarura ku mibereho n’ubuzima bw’urubyiruko muri Maine ryo

Dushobora gufasha abazadukomokaho kutabatwa n’ibiyobyabwenge

Ali na Zouri bunga mu rya benshi, bagatunga urutoki za kirazira zo mu mico n’amadini bizengurutse ikoreshwa ry’inzoga, ndetse n’ihungabana riterwa no kwisanga mu mico itari iy’iwanyu, bigatuma imibare y’abakoresha ibiyobyabwenge izamuka cyane.

Zouri ati “iyo hari ikibazo ntumenya uwo wagana. Ntabwo uba wifuza ko abantu bose bagushyiraho icyasha ndetse n’umuryango wawe, bikaba byanashyirwa no ku muryango wose w’abimukira biturutse ku byakubayeho. Icyo sicyo uba wifuza, sibyo?… ntabwo uba wifuza ko bakwita umubyeyi udashobotse”.

Ku babyeyi bamwe, idini cyangwa umuco ubuza ikoreshwa iryo ari ryo ryose ry’ibiyobyabwenge ndetse n’inzoga. Zouri atangaza ko bamwe mu babyeyi bahitamo ko abana babo badahabwa amasomo ku ishuri ajyanye n’iby’ubuzima kuko baba batinya ko abana babo batakaza “umuco karande wabo cyangwa se indangagaciro zabo”. Ibi bivuze ko haba bo cyangwa abana babo ntawe ubona amasomo ahagije arebana n’ingaruka mbi ibiyobyabwenge bigira ku buzima, cyangwa se ibiyobyabwenge biboneka hano muri Maine. Abana mu miryango itandukanye y’abimukira bamenya ibijyanye n’inzoga ndetse n’ibiyobyabwenge babikuye ku nshuti zabo ndetse no ku mbuga nkoranyambaga kurusha uko babikura ku bakuze.

Imbaraga z’abayobozi b’imiryango y’abimukira ndetse n’amadini

Uri gukira ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge Abdul Ali, yizera ko uburyo bwonyine bushobora gutsinda ihezwa n’ipfunwe ni uko abayobozi mu by’amadini mu misigiti no mu nsengero bafata iyambere bakavuga beruye ku biyobyabwenge. Ali ukomoka muri Etiyopiya, kuri ubu yiga mu ishuri rikuru Southern Maine Community College. Avuga ko ipfunwe riri hejuru cyane mu nshuti ze z’abimukira bakomoka muri Afurika y’Uburengerazuba, ku buryo iyo hagize uwitaba Imana azize gukoresha umurengera w’ibiyobyabwenge (overdose) impamvu y’icyamwishe itavugwa haba umuryango, inshuti ndetse n’abayoboye idini. Nyuma yo gutegura imihango yo gushyingura inshuti ze zitandukanye zizize ikoreshwa ry’umurengera ry’ibiyobyabwenge mu musigiti wabo, Ali yahisemo kwegera ba Imams maze baganira ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge. Avuga ko aba bayobozi bazi uburyo ikiyobyabwenge cya Opioid gikomeje kubata benshi mu bimukira, bakanemera ko ari ikibazo ariko bakaba batazi neza icyo babikoraho.

Kuvuga ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge ngo duhashye ipfunwe urubyiruko rube mu mutekano

Mu myaka mike ishize, muri Maine hatangiye ubufatanye ndetse n’imishinga ifite intego yo gutangiza ibiganiro ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge mu muryango mugari w’abimukira. Umushinga In Her Presence hamwe n’ikigo kita ku buzima bw’abatuye Maine (New Mainers Public Health Initiave muri Liwinston) yishyize hamwe maze yiyemeza guhuza ibiganiro mu matsinda atanu muri iyi mpeshyi, maze batangira ibiganiro bidaca ku ruhande ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge. Biyobowe na Micky Bondo hamwe na Odette Zouri, ibi biganiro byahurije hamwe ababyeyi ndetse n’abana bafite imyaka iri hagati ya 16 na 21, baturutse muri Greater Portland, Lewinston na Bath. Hari kandi abarimu babiri baturutse mu mashuri ya y’abatuye Lewinston bazobereye ku kwigisha ku ndwara ziterwa no gukoresha ibiyobyabwenge.

Odette and children

Igihe cyo kubaza, umushinga w’ikigo gitanga inyigisho ku buzima muri Maine (Health Education Alliance of Maine), vuba aha uraba uyoboye gahunda ku bufatanye n’ikigo cyita ku buzima cya Portland, bagafatanya kandi n’abayobozi mu mashyirahamwe ndetse n’insengero by’abimukira ngo harebwe icyakorwa hagakorwa isuzuma rusange ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge.

Uretse kandi abayobozi b’imiryango migari ndetse n’amadini hamwe n’abakora mu nzego z’ubuvuzi, impuguke mu buvuzi zemera ko ababyeyi bakwiye kuganiriza abana babo ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge. Zouri, uyobora ibiganiro ku ikoreshwa ry’ibiyobyabwenge akaba n’umubyeyi ubwe agira ati “Uba ugomba kwitegura ibyago biri hano. Kubatwa n’ibiyobyabwenge ni icyago hano. Sibyo? Ubwo rero uba ugomba kubivugaho. Ibi ni ibintu uzahura nabyo. Uba ugomba kumenya icyo wakora mu gihe uhuye nabyo. Ugasobanurira abana ko nta muntu numwe ubereyeho kunezeza cyangwa ngo ukore ibintu bitaduha amahoro. Baganirize ku gitutu cy’ inshuti n’uburyo umuntu aba ashaka kwisanga muri zo”. Guverineri Janet Mills, avuga ko icyorezo cya Corona Virus “cyashyize igitutu kidasanzwe ku baturage ba Maine b’imyaka yose, bituma abanywa inzoga nyinshi biyongera, kidasize abakoresha nabi ibinini biyobya ubwenge ndetse n’ibindi byose bigira ingaruka ku myitwarire”. Kuvugira ahabona ikoresha ry’ibiyobyabwenge ni intambwe imwe mu rugendo runini rwo guhashya ipfunwa riherekeza ukubatwa n’ibiyobyabwenge.