Contributed by cPort Credit Union

Rimwe na rimwe, hari ubwo abantu baba nta madolari bafite babitse. Wenda imodoka yapfuye kandi ikeneye gukorwa vuba. Cyangwa se akazi gashya gasaba ko ugura imodoka. Birashoboka ko umunyeshuri akeneye kwiyandikisha mu ishuri. Mu bihe nk’ibi, abantu bashobora kwiyambaza ikigo cy’imari cyangwa se banki ngo bahabwe inguzanyo.

Abatanga inguzanyo bashobora kuguriza amadolari umuntu wiyemeje kuzayishyura. Mu bwumvikane, uhabwa inguzanyo yemererwa amadolari, uyitanze akongeraho inyungu runaka ku madolari azishyura. Mu gihe cyagenwe, uwagurijwe yishyura ya madolari ubundi akanongeraho inyungu. Inguzanyo ifasha uwagujije kuko aba abonye amadolari yari akeneye. Inguzanyo kandi yungukira uyitanze kuko yunguka inyungu ku madolari yagurije, bityo bigateza imbere urwego rwatanze iyo nguzanyo.

Ese ni gute abatanga inguzanyo bamenya ko kuguriza umuntu runaka ari igitekerezo kiza? Mbere ya byose, barabanza bakagenzura ingaruka bahura nazo igihe baguriza umuntu runaka. Bareba niba uwo muntu akora, (ndetse n’igihe amaze akora), bakareba uko bitwaye mu myenda yindi bagiye bafata. Uku kugenzura iby’inguzanyo bigaragaza uko runaka ari umwizerwa mu mu rugendo rwo kugenda yishyura inguzanyo. Iyi niyo mpamvu ari ngombwa cyane umuntu aba akwiye gukora neza ngo azamure imibare ye igaragaza imyitwarire mu gukoresha no kwishyura inguzanyo. Ufite imibare myiza atuma ibigo by’imari bimugirira ikizere, bityo bikanatuma n’ugurizwa yemererwa inguzanyo igihe ayikeneye.

Igihe hasuzumwa ubusabe bw’inguzanyo, abayitanga bagenzura ko umuntu afite aho akura amadolari kandi hizewe, bakareba aho yakoze, ndetse n’aho atuye. Aba kandi bahita basaba raporo ku by’inguzanyo mu bigo bikora aka kazi nka Equifax, Experian na TransUnion. Ibi bigo bitanga raporo irambuye y’igihe kirekire yerekana uko runaka yagiye afata akanishyura inguzanyo, bigafasha utanga inguzanyo yemeza ko runaka yemerewe inguzanyo. Urugero, uguriza ashobora kureba izindi nguzanyo umuntu ari kwishyura, cyangwa se akagenzura niba umuntu runaka hari ubwo atishyuye ku gihe inguzanyo yahawe.  

Iyo umuntu akiri mushya mu gihugu kandi akaba adafite amateka mu bijyanye no gukoresha inguzanyo muri U.S., ashobora kuvugana n’ikigo bakorana mu by’inguzanyo cyangwa se banki maze bakamufasha kuzamura amanota mu mikoreshereze y’inguzanyo. Hari ubwo bamusaba gufata inguzanyo nto, ariko nawe agatanga ingwate kugirango atangire agaragaze ko ashoboye kwishyura umwenda yafashe kandi ku gihe. Bimwe mu bigo bikora ibijyanye no kugenzura imikoreshereze y’umwenda binatanga amanota ku buryo umuntu yishyura umuriro, amazi cyangwa se gaze akoresha aho atuye.

Raporo ku mikoreshereze y’inyuzanyo izwi nka Credit Score, ni ishusho  yerekana uko umuntu runaka afata ndetse akanishyura amadolari y’abandi. Umuntu ufite amanota menshi ku mikoreshereze myiza y’inguzanyo, ashobora kurushaho koroherwa no kwemererwa inguzanyo yifuza kurusha wawundi ufite amanota aciriritse cyangwa ari hasi. Ni ngombwa cyane gukurikirana ndetse no kuzamura ayo manota mu buryo bwose bushoboka. Ibi bishobora gushyira ikinyuranyo kinini mu buryo umuntu yemererwa cyangwa agahakanirwa inguzanyo yo kugura imodoka cyangwa inguzanyo isanzwe cyangwa se inguzanyo yo kugura inzu. Amanota y’imikoreshereze y’inguzanyo anafasha kandi mu kugena inyungu ziri bushyirwe ku nguzanyo uri buhabwe. Akenshi, uko urushaho kugira amanota meza niko inyungu igabanuka.  

 Amakuru agaragara muri raporo y’imikoreshereze y’inguzanyo arimo:

  • Amakuru y’umuntu: Izina, aho atuye, numero iranga umuntu, itariki y’amavuko ndetse n’amakuru ku bijyanye n’akazi akora.
  • Amakuru ku bijyanye n’inguzanyo: inguzanyo cyangwa ikarita mbesha mwenda akoresha, urugero atemerewe kurenza akoresha umwenda ndetse n’uburyo yishyura.
  • Raporo ku busabe bw’umwenda. Inshuro abandi bize ku busabe bw’umwenda bwawe ndetse n’umwanzuro bafashe.
  • Amakosa waba warakoze mu bijyanye n’umwenda n’ibihano waba warafatiwe: Amakuru atari ibanga ava mu nkiko zo ku rwego rwa za leta cyangwa turere, nko guhomba, imyenda yarengeje igihe cyo kwishyurwa ikoherezwa mu kigo gishinzwe kugorora bikanagaragara muri raporo z’imikoreshereze y’imyenda

Dore ibyo imikoreshereze yawe y’umwenda byagufasha:

  • Kugena inyungu wishyura: uko urushaho kugira amanota meza ku mikoreshereze y’inguzanyo, ni nako inyungu ku nguzanyo zigabanuka. Ndetse yewe ijanisha rito rigabanutseho rishobora gutuma ugaruza amagana y’amadoari mu gihe cyose iyo nguzanyo yari kumara.
  • Kwemererwa inguzanyo: Iyo umuntu asimbuka ibihe byo kwishyura cyangwa akaba afite umubare munini w’imyenda yakererewe kwishyura, abamuguriza bashobora kutihutira kumuha inguzanyo igihe ayisabye.
  • Gukodesha inzu yo kubamo: bamwe mubakodesha amazu basaba ko ubemerera kureba muri raporo mu ikoreshwa ry’inguzanyo kugirango bafate icyemezo cyo kugukodesha aho utura. Kuba wishyura neza bishobora kukubera ikintu cy’ingenzi cyane.
  • Kubona ubwishyingizi wifuza: igihe cyose wishyura neza inguzanyo y’inzu cyangwa imodoka bizatuma abatanga ubwishingizi bakugirira ikizere maze baguhe ubwishingizi bitagoranye kandi ku giciro kiza.
  • Kubona akazi: abakoresha benshi basaba ko bemererwa kureba raporo ku mikoreshereze y’inguzanyo nka kimwe mu bigenderwaho bafata icyemezo cyo kuguha akazi. Kugirango amanota meza ku mikoreshereze y’inguzanyo bishobora gufasha abakoresha gufata icyemezo kuko baba bazi urugero uriho mu bijyanye n’imikoreshereze n’imicungire y’umutungo.