Amjambo Africa reporter Amy Harris interviewed Dr. Nirav Shah, Director of the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention.  

Amy Harris: Benshi bari mu rujijo ku birebana n’inkingo zo gushimangira nshya. Ni iki wazibwiraho abasomyi bacu?

Dr. Shah: Nibyo rwose, inkingo zo gushimangira ubu ziri gutekerezwaho na benshi. Ikigo gishinzwe ibiribwa n’imiti muri US(FDA), ndetse n’ w’ikigo gishinzwe guhashya no gukumira ibyorezo (CDC) byose byemeje ikoreshwa ry’urukingo rushya rwa COVID-19 rwo gushimangira kuri buri wese ufite imyaka 12 no kuzamura.

 

 

Ni iki cyatumye babikora? Ni ukubera iki dukeneye urundi rukingo rwo gushimangira? Virusi ya COVID-19 ikora ibyo izindi virusi zikora iyo hashize igihe runaka aribyo kwihinduranya. Kugirango rero tumenye neza ko uburindi duhabwa n’inkingo bujyanye n’igihe, impuguke mu bumenyi bakora inkingo bahora bareba aho bakongeramo imbaraga. Ibyo bakoze rero ni ukongerera inkingo ubushobozi kugirango zibashe guhashya virusi iri muri U.S kuri ubu. Niyo mpamvu bazanye urukingo rwo gushimangira.

Buri wese urwemerewe akwiye kurufata. Nonese ni nde urwemerewe? Wemerewe urukingo rwo gushimangira niba warahawe inkingo zibanze kandi ukaba urengeje imyaka 12. Umuntu wese ufite imyaka 12 no kuzamura kandi akaba yarahawe inkingo z’ibanze akwiye guhabwa urukingo rwo gushimangira. Abantu b’ibanze bakwiye gufata uru rukingo byihuse ni nk’abakuze, abafite ibibazo by’ubuzima cyangwa se abantu bahangayikishijwe byihariye na COVID-19. Abo rwose nibo nifuza cyane ku murongo w’imbere, n’ubwo rwose nifuza ko buri wese arufata.

Ibice bitandukanye muri leta bari kugenda bakira izi nkingo, bityo bikaba bizafata iminsi mike mbere y’uko batangira gutanga izi nkingo. Gusa ushobora guhabwa urukingo rwawe rwo gushimangira aho waherewe urw’ibanze. Bamwe baziherewe muri farumasi, abanda bazibonera aho bivuriza. Aho hantu hose mwaherewe urw’ibanze muzahabonera n’urwo gushimangira. Ntabwo ukeneye kujya ahantu handi hadasanzwe ngo ubone uru rukingo rwo gushimangira.

Amjambo : Ese hari icyo ubwoko bw’urukingo buhindura?

Shah: Hoya, ntacyo buhindura. Ushobora gufata urukingo urwo ari rwo rwose rushya wifuza, hatitawe ku rwo wari warahawe mbere. Niba wifuza gukomeza ubwoko bw’urukingo wari warafashe mbere nta kibazo. Niba ushaka kandi guhindura, nabwo nta kibazo. Nta tandukaniro rinini ririmo.

Reka mbabwire uko nzabigenza hamwe n’umuryango wanjye. Ubwo nzajya gufata urukirwo rushimangira mu cyumweru gitaha, tuzafata urwo tuzasanga bafite. Icyangombwa ni uko uhabwa urukingo rugezweho rwo gushimangira, ntabwo ari ubwoko uhabwa. Kimwe kandi n’inkingo zabanje, inkingo zo gushimangira ziraboneka ku buntu, hatitawe ku byangombwa byo gutura ufite.

Amjambo: Birababaje kubona abantu bakomeje kurwara no gushyirwa mu bitaro no kwicwa na COVID-19. Ese abantu bakingiwe baba bari mubarembejwe n’iyi ndwara? Ese ni gute twamenya ko izi nkingo ndenze n’izo gushimangira zikora?

Shah: abantu kuri ubu bari kurembywa na COVID-19 akenshi usanga ari babandi badakingiye. Buri wese kuri ubu ashobora kwandura COVID-19 kuko yandura cyane. Abantu benshi bari kuyandura haba abakingiye n’abadakingiye.

Gusa hari itandukaniro rinini, mu gihe abakingiye ndetse n’abafashe urwo gushimangira bafatwa na COVID -19 ariko ntibagire ikimenyetso bagaragaza, cyangwa se bakagira utumenyetso tworoshye, iyo umuntu afashwe we biba bibi. Ibi tubimenya kuko dukora ubushakashatsi ku bandura COVID-19, maze tukanareba imibare ngo tumenye ngo tumenye uburyo bari kurwara. Ntabwo urakererwa niba utarafata urukingo rwawe rwambere. Ishobora kugenda ukarufata, kugirango nawe ube urinzwe.

Amakuru yose ku Nkingo zo gushimangira za COVID-19

• Zirizewe? Yego. Inkingo zigezwe za COVID-19 zarasuzumwe cyane ngo hemezwe ko zitekanye. Ikigo cya U.S gishinzwe ibiribwa n’imiti (FDA) byemeje izindi nkingo ebyiri zo gushimangira (Moderna na Pfizer BioNTech).

• Zirakora: Yego. Inkingo zo gushimangira zigezweho zitanga ubwirinzi burenze izabanje, burinda viruzi zihinduranyije ziri kuzenguruka muri iyi minsi (nka Omicron) ndetse zikanarinda virusi ya COVID-19 y’umwimerere.

• Ninde wemerewe: buri wese ufite imyaka 12 kuzamura, kandi akaba amaze byibura amezi abiri yujuje inkingo za COVID-19 z’ibanze.

• Kuki ndukeneye: Inkingo zo gushimangira zizakugabanyiriza ibyago byo kurwara, kujya mu bitaro no gupfa.

• Nkeneye urukingo rw’ibanze? Yego, inkingo zo gushimangira zirahari ariko umuntu aba asabwa kuzuza inkingo z’ibanze za COVID -19.

 

• Ese nanafata urukingo rw’ibicurane? Yego. Ibicurane byo muri iki gihe cy’ubukonje byitezweho kuzaba ari bibi kurusha iby’imyaka yashize. Abaganga baragira inama abantu gufata urukingo rw’ibicurane igihe kimwe bazaba bafata urwo kwishimangiza rwa COVID-19. Nta kibazo kiri mu kuba umuntu yafata izi nkingo zombi icyarimwe.

Amjambo: ese kuki abantu bakingiye bakenera gufata urwo gushimangira? Ntabwo urukingo rumwe ruhagije?

 

Shah: kimwe n’undi muti, ubushobozi bwawo bugenda bugabanuka uko ibihe bigenda bishira, yaba Tylenol cyangwa se urukingo. Uburyo bwiza bwo gutuma umubiri wawe uhora witeguye kwirwanaho ni ugufata urukingo rwo gushimangira

Dukoresha inkingo zo gushimangira no ku zindi ndwara, yaba urukingo rw’ibicurane buri mwaka cyangwa se inkingo abana banyu bafata. Ndetse n’abakuru bajya bakenera gufata izo gushimangira ku zindi nkingo. COVID-19 ntabwo itandukanye n’izo nkingo zindi. Uko umubiri wawe urushaho kuba witeguye, niko urushaho kugira ubufasha bwo kuzahashya virusi igihe uzahura nayo mu isoko cyangwa se murusengero.

Amjambo: Ese ni ikihe gihuha kiri gukwirakwizwa kuri COVID-19 muri ino minsi ndetse n’inkingo zo gushimangira.

 

Shah: Navuga ko ikinini kandi kimaze iminsi ari uko inkingo zidakora. Iki nicyo numva kenshi. Gusa ku bw’amahirwe dufite abahanga hirya no hino ku isi bahariye ubuzima bwabo kwiga ku nkingo, ndetse no gukusanya amakuru ku buryo inkingo ziri gutanga umusaruro. Ku rugero rwenda kuba rumwe, buri muhanga ku isi yose wize ku nkingo za COVID-19 yatanze umwanzuro wenda gusa nk’uwundi, bavuga ko zikora neza mu kugabanya ibyago byo kwandura iyi ndwara ndetse n’igihe wayanduye izi nkingo zituma utaremba  ngo wisange mu bitaro cyangwa se ube wanapfa. Ibi bigaragara cyane ku bantu bakuze, cyangwa se ku bantu basanzwe bafite uburwayi runaka.

Amjambo: Nonese abafite impungenge z’uko izi nkingo zo gushimangira zishobora kuba zitarasuzumwe byuzuye? Ese haba harabaye uguhubuka mu kuzemeza? Ese nta kibazo cyo gufata umubare munini w’inkingo ndetse n’uw’izo gushimangira?

 

Shah: Nibwira ko igihe cyose ari byiza gusaba ibisobanuro ku mutekano w’ikintu icyo ari cyo cyose. Uburyo twakoresheje kuri izi nkingo zo gushimangira ni bumwe n’uburyo dusanzwe dukoresha ku nkingo z’ibicurane buri mwaka. Buri mwaka tuvugurura uru rukingo kugirango twizere ko rujyanye n’igihe. Twitondera ko umuzi shingiro w’urukingo uguma ari umwe, ahubwo hagahindurwa utuntu duke tubwira umubiri uko ukwiye kurwanya virusi. Icyo ni cyo kintu cyonyine cyahindutse. Ikindi kintu cyose ku rukingo kiguma ari umwimerere 100%. Akaba ari yo mpamvu twifuje ko urukingo rwo gushimangira rwaboneka byihuse. Nta kibazo mfite ku buziranenge bw’uru rukingo rwo gushimangira. Ndarushishikariza inshuti zanjye n’umuryango kandi ibi ndabikora ntafushidikanya mfite.

 Amjambo: Ese waba utekereza ko haba hazaboneka inkingo zo gushimangira z’abana vuba?

Shah: kuri ubu urukingo rwo gushimangira rurahari ku bantu bafite imyaka 12 kuzamura, ariko wenda mu gihe kitari icya kera, urukingo rwo gushimangira ruzaba rwemewe ku bana bari munsi y’imyaka 12. Cyakora kuri ubu ntabwo aho turahagera.

Amjambo: Ese ni iyihe nama wagira ababyeyi bafite abana bafite imyaka iri munsi y’itanu, benshi muri bo bavuga ko bafite ubwoba bwo gukingiza abana babo.

 

 

 

 

Shah: Nejejwe no kuba ubajije iki kibazo kuko gukingiza abana COVID-19 ari ingenzi cyane. Mu gihugu cyose turacyafite akazi kenshi mu gushishikariza ababyeyi gukingiza abana babo. Ni ibisanzwe ku mubyeyi uwo ari we wese kugirira igishyika umwana we ku birebana n’inkingo.

Cyakora, iyo utekereje kuri COVID n’abana, nakubwira ko abana bashobora kwandura COVID ndetse bakarwara cyane, bakaba bashobora no kuremba bakisanga no mubitaro kubera COVID. Kuri ubu, abana benshi bakingiwe COVID-19. Ibi bizatuma babasha kubaho ubuzima busanzwe, bishimye kandi batekanye muri uyu mwaka mushya w’amashuri. Igihe nta rukingo, ababyeyi ababyeyi bazakomeza guhangayikira ko abana babo bakwandura COVID, bityo bakaba bayizana murugo, ubundi bakanduza ababyeyi babo cyangwa se ba sekuru. Kubakingira, bigabanya ibyo byago ku rugero runini cyane.

Amjambo: Ese abantu bakwiye guhangayikira COVID y’igihe kirekire? 

 

Shah: COVID y’igihe kirekire irashoboka. COVID y’igihe kirekire isobanuye ko ibimenyetso bya COVID-19 bikomeza n’igihe umuntu yakize iyi ndwara mu mubiri we. Hari imibare itandukanye y’abantu bashobora kurwara COVID y’igihe kirekire, gusa ntabwo ari umubare wo kwirengangizwa. Ku bw’amahirwe, icyo twabonye ni uko uburyo bumwe bwo kwirinda COVID y’igihe kirekire ari ukwirinda COVID. Uburyo bwiza bwo kwirinda COVID ni ukwikingiza.

Amjambo:  bitewe n’uko abantu benshi bashobora kuba bararwaye COVID, benshi bashobora kuba baragize amahirwe ntibarembye, bakagira utumenyetso duke bikaba byatuma bagira bati “n’ubundi narayirwaye. Ntabwo byari bibi cyane. Kuki ngomba gufata urwo gushimangira? Icyo wagisubiza ute?”

 

 

 

 

Shah: Aho ni nko kugerageza amahirwe. Uri kugerageza amahirwe y’uko niwongera kwandura COVID, izaba ari bwa bwoko wanduye mbere, ndetse ko umubiri wawe uzaba uri muzima bihagije byo kuyirwanya. Uri kandi kugerageza amahirwe y’uko utazagira ibyago byo kwanduza umuntu mu muryango wawe igihe uzayandura.

Kubera iki wagerageza amahirwe ku ndwara zandura? Kuki utafata urukingo kugirango igihe wahura na virusi nanone, ugabanye ibyago byo kwandura? Ugabanye ibyago byo kurembywa nayo ari nako ugabanya ibyago byo kuyikwirakwiza mu bandi bantu mu muryango wawe?

Amjambo: Ese nta kibazo cyaterwa no gufata urukingo rwa COVID -19 rwo gushimangira hamwe n’urw’ibicurane icyarimwe?

 

 

Shah: Yego nta kibazo. Niba izo nkingo zose zihari icyarimwe turagushishikariza rwose kuzifatira zombi icyarimwe. Gufata urukingo rw’ibicurane n’ibintu byiza cyane.