Igice cya 1 – ni iki?

Yanditswe na Sally Sutton 

Urwego The New Mainers Resource Center ruherereye muri kigo gitanga ubumenyi ku bakuze Portland Adult Education rukorana n’abashya muri Maine baza muri U.S. bafite impamyabumenyi za kaminuza n’imyaka y’uburambe mukazi. Abantu benshi baba bifuza kumenya niba impamyabumenyi zabo za kaminuza zizemerwa igihe bari gushaka akazi, bashaka amashuri, cyangwa bashaka impushya zo gukora imyuga yabo.

Ese impamyabumenyi izemerwa? Igisubizo ni bizaterwa. Iki ni igice cya mbere cy’uruhererekane rw’ibice bibiri bigerageza gusubiza icyo kibazo. Igice cya 1 gisobanura icyo isuzuma z’inyemezabumenyi ari cyo, naho icya 2 kikazavuga ku isuzuma rikeneye gukorwa.

Kugena icyangombwa cya U.S. gihwanyije agaciro n’impamyabumenyi biraruhije kandi birahenze, kandi bikagenwa n’uburyo umuntu yizemo cyangwa yakozemo akazi, mu gihugu umuntu yizemo, ndetse no kureba niba hari uburyo haboneka inyemezamanota n’imyamyabumenyi.

Biterwa kandi n’impamvu umuntu agiye gukoresha iryo suzuma, ndetse n’uri gusaba isuzuma ry’impamyabumenyi – yaba ari umukoresha, ishuri, cyangwa se ikigo gitanga impushya z’akazi.

Ni ayahe makuru atangwa muri raporo y’isuzuma?  

Hari uburyo butandukanye bw’amasuzuma. Ahenshi, abantu basabwa gutanga isuzuma rikozwe isomo ku isomo, aho akenshi usanga bifite amakuru ajyanye n’ishuri umuntu yizemo, amatariki yaryizemo, uburebure bwa gahunda yize, amasomo yafashe, amanota, ingano y’uko U.S iha agaciro ayo manota, umubare wa za keredi wize, ndetse n’impuzandengo y’amanota wabonye. Iyo bigaragaye ko impamyabumenyi ishobora kubona icyo binganya agaciro muri U.S., isuzuma rizagira wenda riti, “igihwanye n’imyamabumenyi y’ikiciro cya kabiri cya Kaminuza muri U.S. mu bumenyi bw’amashanyarazi gitanzwe n’ishuri cyangwa kaminuza yemewe muri U.S.” Ibi bivuze ko iyi mpamyabumenyi ishobora kuba inganya agaciro na ngenzi yayo y’ikiciro cya kabiri muri ayo masomo yatanzwe na Kaminuza ya Southern Maine. Igihe impamyabumenyi itabonetse ngo isuzumwe, raporo ishobora kuvuga iti “ufite igihwanye n’imyaka itatu y’amasomo yatanzwe n’ishuri cyangwa kaminuza yemewe muri U.S.”

Ni hehe nagana ngo bankorere isuzuma ry’inyemezabumenyi?

Ibigo bitandukanye bikora amasuzuma. Buri wese usaba ko impamyabushobozi isuzumwa – yaba ari ishuri, umukoresha, cyangwa ikigo gitanga impushya – azakubwira ikigo uzakoresha ukora isuzuma. Aya makuru akenshi usanga aboneka ku mbuga z’ikigo. Bitewe n’uburyo impapuro zishuri ziboneka, amahitamo y’ikigo gikora isuzuma ashobora gutuma habaho itandukaniro rinini. Zimwe muri sosiyete zisaba ko impapuro cyangwa ibigaragaza ko umuntu yize byoherezwa ntahandi binyuze kuri bo. Iyo izo mpapuro zikeneye gushyirwa mu Cyongereza, ubusabe nabwo buzagomba gutanga ibisemuye cyangwa gushaka ikigo gitanga serivisi zo gusemura no gusuzuma icyarimwe. Bitewe n’igihugu amasomo yafatiwemo, zimwe muri sosiyete zisaba ko ikindi kigo gisuzuma ko umuntu yize muri iryo shuri rivugwa.

Bimwe mu bigo bikora amasuzuma, ni ibinyamuryango by’ihuriro ry’igihugu ry’ibigo bikora amasuzuma y’inyemezabumenyi (NACES, www.naces.org/). Menshi mu mashuri ndetse n’abakoresha bazemera isuzuma ryakozwe n’ikigo kibarizwa muri iri huriro. Imwe mu myuga igira ibigo byayo bikora amasuzuma. Buri kigo gikora isuzuma kigira igiciro n’ibisabwa bitandukanye bigaragaza uko inyemezamanota n’impamyabumenyi zigomba koherezwamo.

Nonese mbaye ntabasha kugera ku mpapuro zanjye?

Benshi mu batuye Maine, cyane cyane abari ino basaba ubuhungiro cyangwa impunzi, uburyo bwo kugera ku mpapuro zabo z’ishuri bushobora kugorana, bugahenda, bugatinda cyangwa se kuri bamwe bukaba butanashoboka. Bitewe n’izi mbogamizi, mbere yo gutangira urugendo rwo gusuzumisha, banza usubize ibibazo bikurikira: kuki nkeneye ko ikorwa? Ninde ushaka raporo y’isuzuma? Ni gute bashaka ko raporo ikorwa? Bashobora kunyorohereza? Naba mfite cyangwa nshobora kubona impapuro zose nkeneye kugirango isuzuma rikorwe, ndetse nzazohereza mu buryo bukenewe?

Ikibabaje, kuri bamwe, ikibazo cyo kugera ku nyemezamanota n’impamyabumenyi bishobora kuba bidashoboka. Cyakora, kumenya neza igihe isuzuma ry’inyemezamasomo rikenewe ndetse n’icyo rigiye gukoreshwa bizayobora ku kubasha gufata ibyemezo byiza ku mahitamo ahari, ndetse no ku gukomeza amasomo igihe ari ngombwa.

  

Igice cya 2 cy’uru ruhererekane kizasubiza ikibazo kigira giti : Ni ryari isuzuma ry’impamyabumenyi riba rikenewe?  

  

Sally Sutton, MAPPA, MSSW, Umuyobozi wa Porogaramu, New Mainers Resource Center, mu  kigo Portland Adult Education, [email protected], (207) 874-8155