Yanditswe na Georges Budagu Makoko

Imiryango ishinze imizi mu muryango ndetse n’abatanga ubufasha ku bimukira bashobora kuyobora abantu babarizwa mu bimukira ahantu hizewe bakura ubumenyi mu by’ubukungu. Abimukira kandi bakwiye kwirinda kumva amabwire aturutse ku bantu badafite amakuru ahagije bashobora kubaha inama mbi. .

Ukwezi gushize nafashe umwanya nganira n’abayobozi b’ibigo by’ubukungu, ubundi banganiriza uburyo abakiri bashya muri Maine bari kwitwara mu by’ubukungu. Bamwe banyeretse impungenge, bavuga ko kutagira amakuru ahagije ku gice kimwe cy’abimukira byatumye bitwara nabi mu by’inguzanyo, abandi bamburwa imodoka, bakurwa mu nzu, ndetse no gutakaza igice kinini cy’amadolari baba barakoreye biyushye akuya.

Kumva iby’ibanze muri sisiteme y’ubukungu bwa U.S. ni ingenzi cyane mu gihe ushaka gutera imbere mu muryango aho amadolari agira uruhare muri buri kintu. Imyaka 21 ishize, igihe nimukiraga muri Maine mvuye muri DR Congo, naje narize ibijyanye n’ubukungu no kuyobora imishinga y’ubucurizi. N’ubwo ari uko byari bimeze, imyaka yambere hano, nahuye n’ibibazo byinshi igihe nageragezaga gukorana na banki n’ibigo by’imari byo muri U.S. ibintu byasaga n’ibikomeye kandi bitumvikana na gato.

Mu myaka ishize, nabonye abandi bimukira batera imbere, abanda bikabananira. Rimwe na rimwe ibi byaterwaga n’uko nta mbaraga bashyiramo ngo bige sisiteye ya U.S., maze bituma bakora amakosa manini cyane, cyangwa se bagasahurwa n’abajura.

Kugerageza gusobanukirwa n’imikorere ya sisiteme nshya bishobora kurushya cyane. Abenshi mu bimukira baza bazi icyongereza gike, kandi bakaba baturuka mu bihugu bifite inzego z’ubukungu zikora bitandukanye. Mu by’ukuri, bamwe bava mu bihugu bisa n’ibitagira sisiteme za banki. Ikindi kandi iyo bageze muri U.S., abantu bahura n’amategeko atoroshye ajyanye n’iby’ubukungu, imirongo ngenderwaho ndetse n’amabwiriza bitoroshye.

Amerika ikorera kuri sisiteme yubakiye ku nguzanyo, bityo hakazamo amanota yo mu by’inguzanyo (credit scores), amateka mu gukoresha inguzanyo, ndetse n’inyungu ku nguzanyo. Sisiteme nk’iyi ntabwo isanzwe mu bice byinshi by’isi bityo bigafata igihe ngo umuntu abyumve. Ikintu kiza cyo gukora ni ukwigira ku babifiteho amakuru – nk’igice cyahariwe guhugura abantu mu by’ubukungu cya Amjambo Africa – n’abakozi ba banki zizwiho gukora neza cyangwa ibigo bifite mu ntego gufasha abantu kubona inguzanyo.

Banki nyinshi n’ibigo bitanga inguzanyo biba byifuza ko abo baguriza bagera ku ntego zabo bityo rero bazasubiza ibibazo banaguhe ubufasha igihe uzabavugisha. Benshi kandi usanga bafite abasemuzi cyangwa abanda bakozi bagufasha. Kugirana umubano na banki cyangwa ikigo cy’imari ni ingenzi cyane, haba mu kwiga uko sisiteme ikora cyangwa gusaba ubufasha igihe byabaye ngombwa.

Icyambere muri byinshi benshi bakora nyuma yo kubona akazi kabo kambere muri Maine ni ugushaka kubona inguzanyo ngo bagure imodoka yabo yambere. Bimwe mu bigo by’imari bitanga inguzanyo ku nyungu zitandukanye, bityo rero guca henshi ureba ahari inyungu nziza ni iby’ingenzi cyane. Bimwe mu bigo by’imari uzasanga rwose bitigera biha inguzanyo abimukira bataragira amateka mu byo gukoresha inguzanyo muri U.S.

Gufata inguzanyo kandi ku nyungu runaka, bigira uruhare mu mateka no ku manota mu gukoresha inguzanyo. Bityo rero abakiri bashya, bakwiye guhita batangira kubaka amanota mu by’inguzanyo, kandi hari uburyo bwinshi wabikoramo. (Wareba ibice bine bikurikira by’inkuru ku bumenyi mu by’ubukungu za Amjambo Africa “sobanukirwa inguzanyo”).

Fata inguzanyo ikwiriye, bitewe n’uko muri U.S. kwishyura ku gihe ndetse no kudasiba kwishyura ari ingenzi cyane mu kubaka amanota meza mu by’inguzanyo. Cyakora rimwe na rimwe abantu bajya bafata inguzanyo nini. Ibi bibaho nko ku nguzanyo yo kugura imodoka, bityo abantu ntibahite basobanukirwa ko uko imodoka irushaho guhenda, ari nako igiciro kajya hejuru – ibintu nk’ubwishingizi, kuyitaho, kuyandikisha, kuyishyura buri kwezi hamwe n’ingungu, ibi byose biriyongera ugasanga uyitangaho menshi.

Niba watinze kwishyura, ushobora gutangira kwakira amabaruwa cyangwa telefone zikwibutsa. Igihe bimeze bitya, ikintu kibi wakora ni ukwanga kubavugisha, naho ikiza wakora ni ukubavugisha ukabasaba ubufasha. Nyinshi muri banki ziba zifite uburyo bwo gufasha abakiriya babo, nko kubemerera gusimbuka ukwezi kumwe batishyuye cyangwa se kwishyura mu bice mu gihe runaka. Kandi hari ubundi bufasha burebana n’ibibazo bikomeye umuntu ashobora guhabwa.

Ibigo by’imari uzasanga akenshi bifasha abantu bakunda kubavugisha, bakababaza ibibazo, bakanabereka ko bakeneye ubufasha igihe babukeneye. Kwanga kubavugisha bizatuma ibintu biba bibi. Gukora amakosa mu nguzanyo, ni bibi cyane, kandi ntabwo uba ushobora gusimbuka ibihano. Uburyo bwiza muri bwose ni ugutekereza witonze ku rwego rw’inguzanyo uzashobora kwishyura mbere yo gushyiraho umukono.

Iyo hashize igihe, abakiri bashya biga uburyo bwiza bwo gukorana na za banki, uzasanga bakenera ubufasha buke ku bigo by’imari bakorana. Gusa kugeza n’ubu, ngira inama abimukira kwiga sisiteme y’ubukungu muri U.S, maze ntibagwe mu mitego y’abagizi ba nabi bagerageza kubacucura utwabo, cyangwa se iyo bagushwamo n’amakosa yabo.