All about credit
Part Two

Kugirango uhirwe muri Maine, ugomba kumva uko urwego rw’ubukungu rukora muri U.S. Ni urwego rutorohera buri wese, kandi abantu benshi bakora amakosa ubundi bakagwa mu madeni, ibintu bigira ingaruka mbi mu bukungu bwabo muri rusange. Reba inkuru yacu ku bumenyi mu by’ubukungu buri kwezi, unatege amatwi inkuru yacu kugirango umenye byinshi.

Raporo ya keredi ni amakuru ku buryo burambuye ku nguzanyo wagiye ufata, kandi usanga akenshi ari ikintu kifashishwa n’abatanga inguzanyo igihe witegura kuyisaba cyangwa se igihe uri gushaka akazi. Abatanga inguzanyo baba bakeneye kumenya neza ko uri umwizerwa, bityo rero raporo za keredi zigatanga amakuru y’uburyo witwara iyo ugurijwe ndetse n’ibijyanye n’uko wishyura. Ibi bishobora gutuma hafatwa icyemezo cyo kuguha inguzanyo, kwemererwa inguzanyo ku nyungu nto, cyangwa se kuba wahabwa akazi uri gusaba.

Ibigo bikora ibijyanye na keredi bitegura raporo bikusanya amakuru aturuka ahantu hatandukanye, nko mu bigo by’imari, abatanga inguzanyo, ndetse n’ibindi bikora mu rwego rw’ubukungu. Ibigo binini bitanga raporo ku bijyanye na keredi muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe ni bitatu ari byo Equifax, Experian na TransUnion.

Raporo ya keredi iba irimo amakuru nk’amazina, aho utuye, n’umubare uranga umuntu. Haba kandi harimo konti zose wagiye usabiraho inguzanyo – nk’urugero, amakarita mpeshamwenda ufite, inguzanyo zo kwiga, ndetse n’izindi nguzanyo wafashe – ibi byose bikaba biherekejwe n’uburyo wagiye wishyura. Raporo isanzwe ya keredi iba igizwe:

Amakuru aranga umuntu: Amazina yawe yose, itariki wavutseho, umubare ukuranga, aho utuye n’aho watuye mu bihe bishize, akazi ukora n’ako wakoze mu bihe bishize n’ibindi.

Amakuru ya konti: amakuru arebana na konti ufitemo inguzanyo ndetse n’izo wagize mu bihe byashize, inguzanyo zisanzwe, inguzanyo zo kugura inzu, n’ibindi.

Inshuro wasabye guhabwa kopi ya raporo yawe ya keredi: Sosiyete zose cyangwa abantu ku giti cyabo basabye kopi ya raporo ya keredi yawe mu myaka ibiri ishize. Izi zishobora kuba ubusabe bwimbitse (hard inquiry: yaba ubwo wikoreye cyangwa ubwakozwe n’abatanga inguzanyo) cyangwa ubusabe bworoheje (Soft Inquiry: ubusabe bukorwa nawe ubwawe, cyangwa undi ku mpamvu zitari izo gusaba inguzanyo.)

Amakuru arambuye: Ibihombo wagize, igihe wategetswe na banki kubasubiza umwenda bakugurije, ibirarane mu misoro, cyangwa se amakosa wakoze ashobora kubangamira ubunyangamugayo bwawe imbere y’abatanga inguzanyo.

 

Konti zoherejwe mu rwego rushinzwe gukosora: Niba ufite konti utishyuye neza inguzanyo zayo, maze ikoherezwa mu rwego rushinzwe guhana, aya makuru nayo  azaba yanditse muri iyi raporo.

Ubujurire: Niba hari amakuru yagutanzweho ntiwemere ko ari ukuri maze ugasaba kurenganurwa, mu myaka irindwi ishize, aya makuru nayo azaba yanditswe ari nako hajyamo umwanzuro wafashwe kuri ayo makuru.

Raporo ya keredi ibaho kugirango ifashe mu gufata ibyemezo bidahubukiwe. Igihe uri gusaba inguzanyo, utanga inguzanyo areba raporo yawe ya keredi kugirango amenye uko witwaye ubwo wari ufite inguzanyo mu bihe byashize. Ese wishyuye fagitire zawe ku gihe? Ese waba ukoresha amadolari yawe yose wemerewe ku makarita mpeshamwenda yawe yose? Raporo ya keredi yerekana amakuru nk’aya, bigatuma utanga inguzanyo amenya neza ko uzabishyura neza cyangwa se nabi igihe bazaba bakugurije.

Raporo ya keredi kandi irakurengera. Mu gutanga amakuru ku hashize hawe mu by’ubukungu, ushobora kumenya byoroshye aho amakuru yawe yaba yarakoreshejwe nabi, niba hari abajura baba barakwinjiriye, cyangwa se ugakosora ibidahuye neza. Ni igikoresho cyiza mu gukorera mu mucyo, no mu kurengera nk’uguza, ikintu gifitiye inyungu uguza ndetse n’uguriza.

Abantu benshi bakoresha nabi ijambo raporo ndetse n’amanota ya keredi, ukagirango byose ni bimwe. Nyamara, harimo itandukaniro rinini. Raporo yawe ya keredi ni konti yawe irambuye y’amateka yawe mu gukoresha keredi, mu gihe amanota yawe ya keredi – aturuka ku makuru aboneka muri raporo yawe ya keredi – akaba ari umubare w’imibarwa itatu werekana uburyo wakwemererwa inguzanyo mu gihe runaka mu buzima. Uyu mubare ushobora kuba hagati ya 300 na 850, kandi uko urushaho kugira umubare munini, ni nako uba ufite keredi nziza. Nk’uko bisobanurwa na Experian, umubare wa keredi uri hejuru ya 700 usanga rwose ari umubare mwiza muri rusange.

Raporo ya keredi yerekana amakuru arambuye, mu gihe amanota ya keredi yerekana muri make amakuru ya keredi ku batanga inguzanyo. Mu yindi nyito, ni uko raporo ya keredi ari nk’inyandiko ya filime, naho amanota ya keredi akaba utunyenyeri tw’uburyo filime ikunzwe. Byose bifite agaciro, mu kumva inkuru, gusa imwe itanga amakuru asesuye kurusha indi.

Kugenzura raporo yawe ya keredi ku buryo buhoraho ni ingenzi cyane kubera impamvu nyinshi. “uko wareba raporo yawe ya keredi” muri iyi nimero ya Amjambo Africa urabonamo amakuru y’ingenzi y’ibyo ukwiye kureba n’uko wabigenza.

Menya ibi:

  • • Uko wakwemererwa inguzanyo: ubushobozi bwawe bwo kwishyura inguzanyo kandi ku gihe.
  • • Amakuru y’ahahise hawe mu gukoresha keredi. Incamake y’uko witwaye mu bihe byahise ubwo waguzaga inguzanyo ndetse n’uko wagiye uyishyura, harimo n’amakuru ajyanye n’igihe waba waratinze kwishyura, ibihombo wagize, cyangwa se igihe wasabwe na banki gusubiza ayo bakugurije.
  • • Amateka mu kwishyura: amakuru y’uko wagiye wishyura inguzanyo.
  • • Ubusabe bwimbitse: ubusabe bw’utanga inguzanyo bwo kugera kuri raporo yawe kugirango afate icyemezo.
  • • Ubusabe bworoheje: ubusabe bukorwa nawe, ugukodesha inzu cyangwa se uwaba umukoresha wawe kugirango agere kuri raporo yawe ya keredi ku mpamvu zitari izo kukuguriza.
  • • Konti zagiye mu ikosorero: konti yoherejwe ku kigo gishinzwe gukosora bitewe no kutishyura umwenda; izi konti zishobora rwose kugira ingaruka mbi cyane ku manota yawe ya keredi.

Kugenzura raporo yawe ya keredi ni intambwe y’ingenzi cyane mu kubungabunga ubukungu bwawe. Ushobora kubona ibitajyanye, ubujura, ndetse n’ibyateza ibyago mu bukungu bwawe. Dore uko wabona raporo yawe ya keredi ku buntu.

Mu mategeko y’igihugu, ibigo bitatu bishinzwe gukora raporo za keredi – Equifax, Experian, na TransUnion – bigomba kwemerera abantu kugera kuri raporo zabo za keredi kandi ku buntu binyuze muri gahunda y’ubuntu yo gusaba raporo ya keredi buri mwaka.

Urubuga rwa interineti umuntu areberaho raporo ye ya keredi kandi ku buntu ni  https://www.AnnualCreditReport.com. Ukoresheje iyi website, urubuga rwemewe na leta, ushobora kubona raporo yawe ako kanya umaze kwemeza umwirondoro wawe binyuze mu buryo bwo kwimenyekanisha. Ba witeguye kugaragaza izina ryawe, aho utuye, itariki wavutseho n’umubare uranga umuntu. Ushobora kandi gusabwa gusubiza ibibazo kuri konti ufite za keredi, igihe waba hari iyo ufite. Menya neza ko uri gukoresha urubuga rwa interineti uri kubona hano haruguru – witonde utisanga ku mbuga z’abatekamutwe bigaragaza nk’aho arabashinzwe gutanga raporo y’umwaka ku bya keredi. Imbuga z’abiyitirira abo batariho usanga barahinduye akantu gato mu izina ry’uru rubuga, kandi ugasanga bahora bakoherereza email nyinshi, baguhamagara, cyangwa se bakoherereza ubutumwa bugufi bagusaba amakuru yawe akwerekeye. Urubuga rw’ukuri ruzagusaba gusa aya makuru mu rubuga, ndetse nta bundi buryo bazakoresha bayagusaba.

Kugirango ubone raporo yawe kuri telefone, wahamagara numero itishyurwa ariyo (877) 322-8228. Uzasabwa kunyura mu nzira zo kugenzura, maze raporo yawe ya keredi ikohererezwe bitarenze iminsi 15.

Ushobora kandi kubona urupapuro usabiraho iri raporo urukuye ku rubuga rwa interineti rwabo kugirango ubone raporo yawe ya keredi. Urasabwa gusa guhosora uru rupapuro ubundi urwuzuze, ubundi urwohereze kuri aderesi:

Annual Credit Report Request Service

P.O. Box 105281

Atlanta, GA 30348-5281

Raporo yawe ya keredi izakohererezwa mu gihe kitarenze iminsi 15.

Kugenzura raporo yawe ya keredi ni uburyo bwiza bwo kwirinda abakurya utwawe, ari nako kandi ubona raporo iri kumurongo y’uko wakoresheje keredi mu gihe cyashize ndetse n’ubu. Ushobora kandi kubona raporo y’ubuntu buri cyumweru, ndetse waba ushaka kubona raporo yawe inshuri zirenze imwe mu cyumweru, ushobora kugura raporo kuri kimwe mu bigo bitatu bishinzwe ibijyanye na raporo za keredi – Equifax, Experian, na TransUnion.

All about credit
Part One

Urwego rw’ubucuruzi rwa Amerika rushingiye kuri keredi cyangwa se ku gukoresha amadolari y’inguzanyo, bityo rero kumenya ubwoko butandukanye ijambo “keredi” rikoreshwamo ni ingenzi kugirango uhirwe mu bijyanye n’ubukungu.

Muri iki gihugu, hafi ya buri dolari ryose wakiriye cyangwa usohoye rirandikwa. Amateka yawe mu bijyanye n’ubukungu akoreshwa na rumwe mu nzego eshatu zishinzwe gukurikirana uburyo umuntu yakwemererwa inguzanyo, aribyo kureba uburyo bwo kuguza amadolari no kuyishyura wongeyeho inyungu uba ugomba kwishyura mu gihe runaka. Igihe umuntu afite amateka meza mu kwishyura inguzanyo, ibigo by’imari bivuga ko afite keredi nziza. Cyakora, igihe umuntu yigeze kugira ibibazo mu bijyanye no kwishyura abamugurije, cyangwa akajya yishyura atinze, cyangwa akaba nta mateka afite mu gukoresha inguzanyo, bavuga ko uyu muntu afite keredi ijegajega cyangwa ko nta mateka ya keredi afite.

keredi ishingira kubyo ugura ndetse bakareba ko ubyishyura kandi ku gihe, cyangwa se wambura. Aha harimo ubugure ukoresheje ikarita mpeshamwenda, cyangwa se binyuze mu mwenda wafashe ugura inzu, cyangwa se inguzanyo yo kugura imodoka cyangwa yo kujya ku ishuri, cyangwa se wishyura abaguha ingufu n’amazi ukoresha murugo, cyangwa wishyura kwa muganga. Urwego rw’igihugu rushinzwe kugenzura keredi z’abaguzi rwegeranya aya makuru yose rukayita “raporo kuri keredi”, maze izi raporo kuri keredi zikagena niba umntu yakwemererwa inguzanyo. ibigo bitatu bishinzwe keredi ni Experian, TransUnion hamwe na Equifax.

Amakuru ashyirwa muri raporo kuri keredi niyo afasha ngo umuntu abone amanota ya keredi “credit score”, ariyo mibare itatu igaragaza urwego umuntu ariho mu kuba yakwemererwa inguzanyo. Abatanga inguzanyo bakoresha cyane aya manota, ndetse n’ibikubiye muri raporo kuri keredi maze bakemeza neza ko umuntu yakwemererwa inguzanyo ndetse n’amabwiriza yayigenga. Haba hakubiyemo kandi ingano y’ayo yakwemererwa kuguza, igihe inguzanyo yamara, ndetse n’inyungu yazishyuriraho inguzanyo ye.

Amanota menshi ya keredi aba avuze ko abatanga inguzanyo bamufata nk’umuntu w’umwizerwa, mu gihe kugira amanota make, aba asobanuye ko uyu muntu azagorwa no kubona inguzanyo bitewe n’uko abatanga inguzanyo nta kizere bamufitiye cy’uko yazabishyura. kugira amanota meza ya keredi bifasha umuntu gutera imbere mu by’ubukungu ndetse no kugira amahirwe yo gutera imbere. Urugero, amanota meza ya keredi atuma wemererwa inguzanyo kandi amategeko ajyana nayo akaba atagoye, nk’inyungu nto, ndetse n’amadolari wemerewe kuguza akazamuka. kugira amanota meza ya keredi anatuma kandi umuntu abasha gukodesha inzu yo guturamo, kubona ikarita mpeshamwenda, ndetse no kubona akazi byoroha.

Kugira amanota make ya kerezi bisobanuye ko n’iyo wagurizwa, bazaguhera ku nyungu nini cyane. Rimwe na rimwe kandi usanga kugira amanota make ya keredi binatuma umuntu agorwa no gukodesha aparitema cyangwa kugura telefone, bishobora kandi kuvuga ko udashobora kubona ubwishingizi bw’imodoka ku giciro gito. Ikindi kandi kugira amanota mabi ya keredi bishobora gutuma umuntu atagira amahitamo menshi, bityo kuguza amadolari akeneye bikamuhenda cyane.

Kugira amanota meza ya keredi birakorwa. Kwishyurira ku gihe, kudakoresha cyane ikarita mpeshamwenda, ndetse no gukoresha amadolari y’inguzanyo z’uburyo butandukanye ni ingenzi cyane. Gukora ibyo usabwa gukora byose kuri keredi yawe kandi ukabikora kugihe, bishobora gutuma wubaka amateka meza mu bijyanye na keredi ibintu bizagufasha mu bihe biri imbere. Iki ni cyo gihe cyo gutangira kubaka keredi. Uhereye mu gufata inguzanyo nto kandi yizewe cyangwa se gufungura ikarita mpeshamwenda, bishobora kugaragaza ko witwara neza mu by’ubukungu bityo igihe uzakenera inguzanyo yihuse, nko kugura imodoka cyangwa inzu ntibizakugore.

Ushobora kuba wibaza ko keredi yawe ibarwa nk’ihagaze neza cyangwa nabi, cyangwa se ukibaza uko keredi yawe yaba ihagaze. Menshi mu mahuriro y’abatanga inguzanyo hamwe n’amabanki batanga raporo y’ubuntu ndetse n’uburyo bwo gukurikirana keredi yawe ku bo bakorana, kandi baba biteguye kukurebera. Ushobora kandi kubona raporo y’ubuntu buri mwaka uyikuye muri bya bigo bitatu twavuze bishinzwe keredi ku rubuga AnnualCreditReport.com. Kugenzura ko keredi yawe nta makosa arimo ndetse ukanamenya ko nta batekamutwe bayinjiriye ni ingenzi cyane.

Keredi ni igice cy’ingenzi cyane mu by’ubukungu muri Amerika. Ituma abantu babasha kugura ibyo batari bubashe kugura kubera ko batabifite ubushobozi ubu, bigatuma abantu babasha gutera imbere. Cyakora ni ingenzi cyane kugira keredi nziza no kubyaza umusaruro ibyiza byayo. Kumenya gusa uburyo keredi ikora, ndetse ukagira uruhare mu bukungu bwawe, bishobora gutuma wisanga mu nziza nziza iganisha ku bukire mu gihe kizaza.

Menya ibi:

Keredi: Ibi bivuze ikizere abaguriza bakugirira cyo kuguza no kwishyura mu gihe kiri imbere. Ni amasezerano mugirana ubundi ugahabwa ibyo ukeneye, cyangwa amadolari ubu, ubundi ukemera kuzishyura nyuma. Uko ugira keredi nziza, ni ko ibyo wemererwa mu bukungu byiyongera

Ibigo bikurikirana ibijyanye na keredi: Ibi ni ibigo bishinzwe gukusanya no kwegeranya amakuru ajyanye na keredi ku bantu, hanyuma bakayagurisha n’izindi nzego mu rwego kugaragaza keredi z’abantu. Hari ibigo bitatu bishinzwe keredi muri Amerika. Ibyo bigo ni Experian, TransUnion, na Equifax. Abatanga inguzanyo bifashisha aya makaru kugira ngo bamenye niba bakuguriza ndetse n’inyungu baguheraho. 

 

 

Raporo ya Keredi: Raporo mu bya keredi ni impine y’amateka yawe mu gukoresha keredi cyangwa se inguzanyo, igategurwa n’ikigo gikurikirana ibijyanye na keredi. Iyi raporo izaba irimo amakuru y’umuntu ku giti cye, umubare wa konti akoresha mu by’inguzanyo, uko yishyura, inshuro wagerageje gusaba inguzanyo, ndetse n’amakuru rusange nk’ibihombo wagize, niba warakurikiranwe n’abakira imisoro n’ibindi. Ibi bifasha abatanga inguzanyo kumenya ubushobozi bwawe bwo kwishyura umwenda mu gihe kiri imbere. 

 

Amanota mu bya keredi: Amanota mu bya keredi ni umubare ugenwa hagendewe ku igenzura ry’amakuru mu bya keredi y’umuntu akagaragaza urwego rw’inguzanyo umuntu yakwemererwa. Ni imibare itatu igenwa nyuma yo gusoma raporo yawe ya keredi ukabarirwa hagati ya 300 na 850. Uko ugira amanota menshi, ni ko urushaho kuba wakwemererwa inguzanyo, bikaba bivuze ko ari ko urushaho kugira amahirwe yo guhabwa inguzanyo ku mabwiriza atagoranye, ndetse no kunyungu nto. 

Ikintu kinini abatanga inguzanyo nk’ibigo bitanga inguzanyo na za banki bigenderaho, bagenzura ko umuntu yakwemererwa inguzanyo ni uburyo bagiye bishyura mu bihe byashize. Ibi bikorwa kugira ngo utanga inguzanyo amenye neza ko ugurijwe azishyura inguzanyo ku gihe, kandi akishyura inguzanyo yose. Kwishyura utinze, gusimbuka igihe cyo kwishyura cyangwa kwishyura nabi biguma muri raporo y’umuntu mu gihe cy’imyaka irindwi, bityo rero abatanga inguzanyo bareba mu mateka yo kwishyura y’umuntu mu gihe kirekire gishize.

Iyo utinze kwishyura nka rimwe gusa, ntabwo byakwangiriza amanota yawe mu by’inguzanyo, gusa iyo abakuguriza babonye ko wacikanywe no kwishyura inshuro nyinshi, nibwo batangira kukwibazaho. Ikintu kiza cyo gukora iyo ufite amadolari wacikanywe no kwishyura ni ukugerageza kuyishyura mu maguru mashya. Uko utinda kwishyura, cyangwa uko wishyura nabi, niko raporo yawe mu by’inguzanyo irushaho kwangirika, ari nako birushaho kukugiraho ingaruka mbi.

Ubusanzwe, amadolari atarishyuwe ahita yohererezwa ibigo bishinzwe guhana abakoze ayo makosa mu minsi 30 ishize umuntu atarimo kwishyura inguzanyo, iminsi 180 umuntu atari kwishyura amadolari ku ikarita mpeshamwenda. Konti zoherejwe mu kigo gishinzwe gutanga ibihano zihita zishyirwa muri raporo mu gukoresha inguzanyo nabi, ibi bigahita bimanura cyane amanota mu gukoresha inguzanyo. Ingaruka zabyo zirimo kugabanyirizwa ingano y’amadolari wemererwa kuguza ku mwenda uhari ( ndetse no kugabanyirizwa ayo uzaguza mu gihe kiri imbere), amadolari aje akererewe, ndetse n’izamuka ry’inyungu ku nguzanyo, ibi byose bikaba bishobora guhita bikubera umutwaro uremereye mu by’ubukungu. Ikindi, iyo konti yimuriwe mu bashinzwe gutanga ibihano, uwatanze inguzanyo aba yemerewe no kuba yakurega mu butabera.

Abasaba inguzanyo bashobora kandi bakwiga no gufata ingamba zitagoye zo gutuma bagumana raporo nziza mu by’inguzanyo, bitewe n’uko ibi byatuma yirinda amagorwa menshi mu by’ubukungu mu gihe kizaza. Urugero, gutegura uburyo amadolari azajya yiyishyura byakugabanyiriza cyane ibyago byo kwibagirwa cyangwa gucikanwa n’itariki yo kwishyura. muri ubwo buryo, byibura uba uzi neza ko ayo usabwa kwishyura yivana kuri konti yawe buri gihe cyo kwishyura. Ubundi buryo, ni ukwandika amatiriki yo kwishyurira ho kuri karindari yawe, ubundi ugategura akantu ko kukwibutsa kazajya kagaruka buri gihe cyo kwishyura – ukamenya ko igihe cyo kwishyura cyageze. Kwishyura hakiri kare kandi kenshi nabyo ni igitekerezo kiza ku bantu, bitewe n’uko hari ubwo umuntu ahura n’ikibazo mu by’ubukungu atari yariteguye.

Niba ufite amanota make mu bya keredi, nta gihe kiza kurusha ubu cyo gutangira kuyazamura. Fata umuco wo kugenzura iteka raporo yawe mu bya keredi, tangira wishyure kuva ubu kandi ku gihe, ishyura umaremo inguzanyo zawe, kandi ntugakoreshe amadolari yose wemerewe gukoresha ku ikarita yawe mpeshamwenda. Nuramuka ukurikije izi nama, uzatangira wubake raporo nziza mu by’inguzanyo, kandi wowe n’umuryango wawe muzishimira cyane kugira umutekano mu by’ubukungu muri Amerika.